Yeah kinda. Ordinary garden soil tends to be more dense than potting soil, which is made to drain better so pots don't stay waterlogged for too long after watering. Potting soil is lighter and less dense than garden soil, and you generally will get healthier potted plants with it. It's not just a porky scam trying to sell you dirt when you can dig it up out of your backyard, it's legitimately a different mixture.
Garden soil is generally loam, clay,and sand mixed together. The ratio varies with your location of course.
Potting soil is usually some combination of peat moss or coco fiber, compost, and perlite (heat treated volcanic rock, those little white flecks, these are to improve drainage) Often it also has fertilizer included, either as slow release pellets, or as compost for organic potting soils.
Garden soil in pots won't kill your plants though. Far from it. Dirt is dirt, and if you want to be frugal while still getting some of the benefit of potting soil you could cut it with a bit of garden soil to make it last longer.
If you've ever had issues with soil borne plant diseases in your garden, it's probably best t avoid using the garden soil at all in potting mixtures. That's another advantage of potting soil. It's often been sterilized by heating it up to kill off pests.