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/leftypol/ - Leftist Politically Incorrect

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File: 1660691289399-1.jpg (81.13 KB, 514x693, 64754745.jpg)

 No.1122230[View All]

As I promised a few weeks ago II will translate The Black Book of capitalism from french to English.

Now starting with the table of contents:

Foreword, Gilles Perrault
Introduction, Maurice Cury

Capitalism's origins, Jean Suret-Canale

Slave economy and capitalism : a measurable overview, Philippe Paraire

Shoot, thoses are only workers, André Devriendt

1744-1849, A Lyon's century : The canuts against profit's cannibalism, Maurice Moissonnier

1871 :Class treason and bloody week. Claude Willard

Union busting, André Devriendt

Capital's armed gangs in republican France, Maurice Rajsfus

The Great War : 11 500 dead et 13 000 wounded each day for three years and six months, Jean-Pierre Fléchard

Counter revolution and foreign interventions in Russia(1917-1921), Pierre Durand

World war two, François Delpla

Of the origin of wars and a paroxysmal form of capitalism, Pierre Durand

Imperialism, sionism and Palestine, Maurice Buttin

War and repression: the vietnamian bloodbath, François Derivery

Slaughters and repression in Iran, François Derivery

Anticommunist génocide in Indonesia, Jacques Jurquet

Fascist annexion of East Timor, Jacques Jurquet

Irak victim of oil, Subhi Toma

Algeria 1830-1998 : From colonial capitalism's infancy to the monopolar enterprise of globalized recolonisation, André Prenant

African independencies and communism (1960-1998), Francis Arzalier

North American interventions in Latin America, Paco Pena

United States, the uncomplete dream. The long march of African Americans, Robert Pac

Centenary of a genocide in Cuba. Weyler's « reconcentration », Jean Laïlle

The Indian genocide, Robert Pac

Capitalism to the assault of Asia, Yves Grenet

Migrations in the XIXth and XXth century : contribution to capitalism's history, Caroline Andréani

Capitalism, armament race and arms trade, Yves Grenet

Globalization's undeads, Philippe Paraire

Capital's globalization and root causes of barbary's threats, François Chesnais

Swiss bankers kill without machine guns, Jean Ziegler

An ad is worth a thousand bombs. Advertising's crimes in modern warfare, Yves Frémion

Even if the abolition of capitalism would not be enough, Monique and Roland Weyl

Capitalism and barbary: Black table of slaughters and wars in the XXth century
373 posts and 183 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.


Probably 1 billion


>Welp, looks like there will be need for an enhanced edition.

I feel finishing the base book first is best, then review/revised 2nd ed.

But a /Leftypol/ Extended and annotated edition (as in added appendicies, etc. not in the main body of the text) would be epic.


>This is just a tiny part of it.
Perhaps creating your own succinct addendum relevant to the particular parts of that chapter, with a recommended reading list, could be added later?


Ahahaha the review for the archive book is hilarious burgerpunk:
>Wildly myopic view of the Tiger Force in the Vietnam War
>This book is shallow, wildly biased, uninformed and does not accurately cover the complexities of the Vietnam war. To top it off this ridiculous book won a Pulitzer - really? This book goes to great lengths to depict the tiger force element as nothing more than murderous thugs while failing miserably at defining the real "tactical" threat the Vietnamese civilians represented. A fact that does not stop merely at the reality of their providing intel and resources to the enemy. But to portray the Vietnamese civilian as "innocent" because they were not carrying weapons is intensely stupid and offensive. This book takes a stab at (and fails miserably) at assessing the possible psychological consequences that killing people can have on the mind of an American teenager. Then somewhere around page 210 or so just when operation wheeler is about to begin.. the idiot authors launch into the point of view of a genuine JACK ASS in CID (criminal investigation division) Regardless, you should not attempt to take on the Vietnam war until you are ready to take on the true underlying motive for the Vietnam war in the first place. To cover
up the race war between the whites and blacks in the United States. Where the later emerges (true to form) as more of an enemy of the American people than the Vietnamese could ever begin to be or even hope to be. Who coined the phrase "THE PROOF IS IN THE PUDDING"


File: 1663926006037.gif (3.87 MB, 600x600, capitalism kills.gif)

>On the VC agent that got his toes crushed and legs cut off slice by slice.
words fail me. this is the South Vietnamese puppet regime, right?
1 billion is an understatement
if you write it I can add it. see the .tex files I have attached in here for how to mark up sections and such



Well at the risk of looking like a whiny demanding person, is there a way to obtain some english or french version?
If I use machine tl I won't be able to correct mistakes .

Kek, hoes mad


Chapter 22, in which we see how much Amerikkka deserves this spelling.


I’ll help you in translation. Finding Vietnam war crimes of US soldiers and their cohorts is surprisingly difficult. Even though I met the people who was tortured and with photographic evidence. Hell I even met the guy in the article in a public interview a year before he died.
>The Toledo Blade articles represent some of the best reporting on a Vietnam War crime by any newspaper, during or since the end of the conflict. Unfortunately, the articles tell a story that was all too common. As a historian writing his dissertation on U.S. war crimes and atrocities during the Vietnam War, I have been immersed in just the sort of archival materials the Toledo Blade used in its pieces, but not simply for one incident but hundreds if not thousands of analogous events. I can safely, and sadly, say that the "Tiger Force" atrocities are merely the tip of the iceberg in regard to U.S.-perpetrated war crimes in Vietnam. However, much of the mainstream historical literature dealing with Vietnam War atrocities (and accompanying cover-ups and/or sham investigations), has been marginalized to a great extent – aside from obligatory remarks concerning the My Lai massacre, which is, itself, often treated as an isolated event.
>In fact, in 1972, Bowers's commanding general pronounced that "no disciplinary or administrative action" would be taken against the suspected war criminal and in a formerly classified memorandum to the U.S. Army Chief of Staff, prepared by Colonel Murray Williams on behalf of Brigadier General R.G. Gard in January 1973, it was noted that the "…determination by commanders to take no action against three personnel on active duty who were suspected of committing an offense" had not been publicly acknowledged.
The same can be said for the French involvement in the first indochinese war. Even trying his best at “both sides bad” Christopher Goscha still had to admit that all the examples were committed by the French in The Penguin History of Modern Vietnam:
>Rape became a disturbing weapon used by the Expeditionary Corps, as did summary executions. Young Vietnamese women who could not escape approaching enemy patrols smeared themselves with any stinking thing they could find, including human excrement. Decapitated heads were raised on sticks, bodies were gruesomely disemboweled, and body parts were taken as 'souvenirs'; Vietnamese soldiers of all political color also committed such acts. The non-communist nationalist singer, Phạm Duy, wrote a bone-chilling ballad about the mothers of Gio Linh village in central Vietnam, each of whom had lost a son to a French Army massacre in 1948. Troops decapitated their bodies and displayed their heads along a public road to strike fear into those tempted to accept the Democratic Republic of Vietnam's sovereignty. Massacres did not start with the Americans in My Lai, or the Vietnamese communists in Hue in 1968. And yet, the French Union's massacre of over two hundred Vietnamese women and children in My Tratch in 1948 remains virtually unknown in France to this day.


the machine translation version was perfectly readable, if awkward tbh.


Awkyard indeed. I'll post what i got in the next posts.

If you're willing, I'll let you correct mistakes and use more elegant phrasing because I have absolutely no way of knowing if I end up betraying the meaning of the texif I do it myself.


(Inspector)- Hero of the People's Armed Forces Nguyen Van Thuong once made the enemy bow his head and admit: "I lost, you are a steel creature" when sawing his leg 6 times. A series of brutal tortures, seductions with material and beauty did not shake the intelligence warrior's will. He passed away at the age of 81, but his courage and sacrifice will forever be remembered by generations.

<Major Nguyen Van Thuong was awarded many noble orders and titles by the State.

The picture comes from wikipedia because for some reason I don't have pictures loading in the original link



Revolutionary traditional family

Major Nguyen Van Thuong was born in 1938 in Loc Hung commune, Trang Bang, Tay Ninh to a revolutionary family. When he was 3 months old, he was sent to a foster aunt for his parents to go to revolutionary activism. At the age of 8, his mother was arrested, exiled to Con Dao and died. In 1959, his father was also killed in a military service.

In May 1959, young Nguyen Van Thuong decided to join the revolution. He was always filled with love for the Fatherland and hatred for the enemy. In 1961, he was transferred to the reconnaissance unit and worked as a security guard for Vo Van Kiet (then Secretary of the Saigon - Gia Dinh T4 Party Committee). After that, he was transferred to the intelligence industry, under the direct training of Muoi Nho (Colonel Nguyen Nho Quy, Head of the Intelligence Department of Saigon - Cho Lon).

During his 10 years of combat service from 1959 to February 1969, he was assigned to inter-intelligence in the North Saigon area (Saigon - Ben Cat - Binh Duong). This is a difficult time because the US and South Vietnamese militaries have always been cautious, often tightly controlling this key corridor. Despite the difficulties, he still carried out thousands of transfers of instructions and documents and transported hundreds of officials from outside the base into Saigon and from Saigon to the base safely.

On February 10, 1969, while on his way to bring documents from Saigon to the base area, he was spotted by American aircraft, lowering his attempt to capture him alive. He actively shot down a plane with an AK gun, killing 3 American soldiers. The U.S. military had to mobilize a large force of 72 helicopters, each a platoon, the former 48th regiment and the 5th Division of the Republic of Vietnam to capture him, but he hid the documents well before he was captured.

After 100 days in the mansion, although using money, houses and beautiful girls could not bribe him, the US began to apply "phase 2" with cruel and terrible torture.



Indomitable spirit in 6 leg saws

During his imprisonment, they used all sorts of brutal tortures to extract information from him. "The 6 saws of the American's legs are unforgettable to me. To start my execution, they tied me to the table and broke my little toes, causing me pain to my heart," Thuong said during a meeting with reporters.

After that, they began to seduce him but in response to their questions, he only remained silent and identified himself as Nguyen Truong Han, a deserter, not Nguyen Van Thuong - the head of the Southern Intelligence Department as the traitor Chien Cá pointed out. Every few days they came to interrogate him and his 10 toes were smashed one after another. When he finished breaking 10 toes they smashed his feet with sticks so that he could not continue to do intelligence.

Although he died repeatedly, he suffered because of a belief in the Party. "As long as I reveal many of our army's secret facilities, it will be revealed and it will be completely detrimental. I would rather die than definitely not cooperate with the enemy, never sell water," Thuong said when he was alive.

When the wounds on his feet did not heal, he continued to have his legs amputated by the Americans. Each time, they sawed a section, they sawed it with their hands, when it was only a few meters, when it was a piece.

"Over the course of several days, they sawed off my leg 6 times and this was the most painful time. Each time they prepare a saw, they apply many psychological torture tactics that prolong the stress, prolong the pain. After fighting the saw, the saw is finished healing, almost healing them are sawed again. At one point, sawing them off, they took me as an experiment for an American doctor to practice. Just like that, they sawed many times, sawed many segments, and until the 6th time, I lost my legs forever," Shang's memoir recorded.

The courage and heroism of Major Nguyen Van Thuong made the American oligarchs and "butchers" at that time have to exclaim: "I lost, you are a creature of steel".

After using all sorts of tricks from psychology to torture to no avail, he was sent to the Deer Pit Detention Center. In prison, he continued to operate, struggle, write leaflets, so he was classified as a forbidden prison, locked in an iron barrel for 3 months, where ordinary prisoners could not stand it for 15 days, and then exiled to Con Dao. In 1973, after the Paris Agreement, he was released and reunited with his family.

He was awarded by the State: 2 First Class Order of Liberation Feats; 1 Third Class Liberation Meritorious Service Medal; 14 times won the title of american hero. On 6/11/1978, Mr. Nguyen Van Thuong was awarded the title of Hero of the People's Armed Forces by the President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

On August 13, 2018, the former intelligence officer passed away at the age of 81. The passing of Major Nguyen Van Thuong leaves infinite grief with his family, friends, comrades and the Vietnamese people.

Xuan nan


So yeah, I have mostly the gist of it, though I'm pretty sure stuff like The 6 saws of the American's legs is the machine tl sharting itself.


Also while looking for Mr Nguyễn Văn Thương's picture, it looked like the Vietnamese wiki have a lot of article regarding people from that era.

Is Vietnamese wikipedia reliable Viet cong Anon?


File: 1664038521219.png (48.34 KB, 584x477, ClipboardImage.png)

>Is Vietnamese wikipedia reliable Viet cong Anon?

NTA but it's as good as it's sources, the little of it've used for English wp translations it's usually government sources, viet news-media and university/archive stuff. Seems fine and passes the standard to me.


It’s extremely funny how they keep making up “communist atrocities” to say that both sides bad. While the evidence of actual massacres is 100% American made. With the Hue “massacre” being so false that even anti communist overseas Vietnamese denies it. And the other one came from a ruined paragraph in a 70s American tabloid.
Facts don’t care about your feelings rightoids.
Nope the Americans cut off his legs. The South Vietnamese put him in a barrel for 3 months before throwing him out to Con Dao.
>A series of brutal tortures, seductions with material and beauty did not shake the intelligence warrior's will.
“Material” could be either replaced with “wealth” or “material wealth”
>During his 10 years of combat service from 1959 to February 1969, he was assigned to inter-intelligence in the North Saigon area (Saigon - Ben Cat - Binh Duong).
Inter intelligence is a wrong translation. It’s actually intelligence couriering.
>lowering his attempt to capture him alive.
It’s more in the veins of “which immediately descended in an attempt to capture him alive”
The 6 saws of the American's legs are unforgettable to me. To start my execution
>having your legs sawn off 6 different times was an unforgettable experience for me. To start my interrogation
never sell water
>never sellout your country
Each time, they sawed a section, they sawed it with their hands, when it was only a few meters, when it was a piece.
>They did it section by section. Sometimes they cut off a full foot, sometimes only a sliver a few centimeters thick, until only stumps remained.
he continued to operate, struggle, write leaflets, so he was classified as a forbidden prison
>he continued to operate, struggle, write leaflets, so he was classified as a pigheaded uncompromising prisoner
Depends on the primary sources. But I have to note that like American sources but to a lesser extent, some Vietnamese historical accounts are distorted due to years of combat, opportunistic behavior from soldiers that wanted their actions being larger than life, and simple mistakes.


Welp this thread made me look further into Diem era atrocities. And it’s a fucking rabbit hole. Detailed accounts can be found in local newspapers of each province. These might be the worst of it all, trigger warnings for anons who might be squeamish or is eating:
The mass graves of Bình Hưng Cà Mau province
>In July 1957, the Ngo Dinh Diem dictatorship appointed father Nguyễn Lạc Hóa alongside 80 devoted catholic families, the majority of which are Chinese diaspora (KMT loyalists fleeing from mainland China) so called Tàu Phù, and a minority of catholic Northerners and Midlanders from Operation passage of freedom, to Phú Mỹ village in order to form a Dinh Điền (or land development program) and build the Phú Hưng church.
>In 06-5-1959, when the Ngô Đình Diệm dictatorship implemented Act 10/59 bringing camo-clothed butchers and guillotines to terrorize revolutionaries. In Minh Hải, the white terrorists began a series of brutal repression on the people of the area. At this time father Nguyễn Lạc Hóa began to open the door to the church, advertising that people may avoid executions if they follow Catholicism. From this point on, Nguyễn Lạc Hóa had showed his true form as a useful cohort to Ngô Đình Diệm.
>Evidence of atrocities that Hóa and company had committed:

<The family of Mr Tám Xồi in Giáp Nước got fragged by commando grenades which killed 7

<The family of Mr Trứng in Rạch Chèo commune had his entire family of 12 murdered

<The family of Mr Chín Phát had 9 members executed

<The family of Mr Sáu Hòa had 5 members executed, including a 90 year old senior citizen, 2 children, the pregnant wife and daughter in law of Mr Sáu.

<The family of Mr Chữ in Tân Quảng A had 6 members killed. Many other massacres was committed outside of these cases…

<Mrs Bảy Xịt and her daughter were neutral civilians captured by commandos and brought to their patrol boat, major Trứ and his underlings attempted to sexually abused Loan (daughter of Mrs Bảy Xịt), but was fought off. Not being able to play out his sexual desires, Trứ shot both and pushed them into the river while they were still breathing.

>Mr Nguyễn Văn Phiếu was hung from a tree, his blood and liver was taken to be eaten raw

< Martyr Nguyễn Hồng Cao was a communist spy, who was captured and brutally tortured by the m Bình Hưng clique. Because of his tenacity he was buried alive.

<Mrs Lữ Thị Tám a 50 year old woman was captured and made into stir fried

<Mr Nguyễn Văn Nghi endured a morbid form of baptism in which he was boiled alive inside a steel drum using holy water. After the “ceremony” they ate his organs.

<Mr Phạm Văn Ký was decapitated with an ax

<Mr Hoàng Quất 24 was a prisoner from the north, who was captured while trying to escape prison, he also had his organs eaten by Bình Hưng commandos

<When Bình Hưng commandos attacked Tân Thành, they shot mrs Nguyệt (a Khmer) while she was holding her child. The soldiers stomped the child to death.

<A survivor of the terror is Mr Nguyễn Bé, journalist to Minh Hải news. Both his parents were murdered by the clique. They tried to mash him using a big mortar and pestle but he was pardoned by a family member of Hoá.

<The heinous of these KMT catholic remnants (tàu phù) was revealed during the trials of Lương Chí Xền before the people’s court. He himself had admitted to eating human flesh multiple times.

<“Bình Hưng troops started these raids to capture girls for whore houses, soldiers that failed the kidnapping quotas would have their wages deducted. The Bình Hưng had accustomed themselves to human flesh, they even fought each other for human gall bladders, which is sold from 1.000 to 1.800 đồng (about 400 to 600 USD in 1950 money) for Sài Gòn capitalists. The Diệm dictatorship called Bình Hưng (Or Hải Yến base) impenetrable, President JFK even called Bình Hưng as “A bright star of the free world”, the people of Cà Mau called them Bình Hưng with their true name “American-Diệm-Chiang’s hell hole”. The butchers of Bình Hưng in their drunken bloodlust even boasted “If VCs ever took Bình Hưng then they can take the south” (The letters from Cà Mau- by Anh Đức). The praises of Diệm, JFK and the egotistical boastfulness of the criminals of Bình Hưng stood to show the paradoxical nature of anti communist crimes against humanity


what the fuck was with that much cannibalism


But who coined the phrase PROOF IN PUDDING? is this some kind of Qanon riddle?
I.e: it was albert trees and albert trees has 12 letters in it, 12-3 is 9 and so the ninth of December is when the race war will happen?


Take a day off friend, that's a lot to read through.


Anti communists aren’t humans. And I suspect because they were KMT remnants they probably were still extremely salty about the CPC winning the Chinese civil war so they took their rage out on defenseless civilians.
Another fun fact is the the Ngo Dinh Diem dictatorship loved Hitler and modeled their death squads after the Waffen SS.


Alright so enumerating corrections and some of my remarks…

First with the title
>The legend of the 6-time intelligence major who was sawed off by the enemy
could it be
>The legend of the intelligence major who was sawed off 6 times by the enemy

>A series of brutal tortures, seductions with wealth and beauty did not shake the intelligence warrior's will.

I wonder if seductions could be replaced with temptations?

>During his 10 years of combat service from 1959 to February 1969, he was assigned to intelligence couriering in the North Saigon area (Saigon - Ben Cat - Binh Duong).


>On February 10, 1969, while on his way to bring documents from Saigon to the base area, he was spotted by American aircraft, which immediately descended in an attempt to capture him alive.

Would landing also work?

>He actively shot down a plane with an AK gun, killing 3 American soldiers.

uh, was it an helicopter? I have a hard time believing some bomber or fighter jet would try to land to catch a single man and could be shot down with an assault rifle. Or it the original just a generic word for flying apparels in which case I should use aircraft again?

>The U.S. military had to mobilize a large force of 72 helicopters, each a platoon, the former 48th regiment and the 5th Division of the Republic of Vietnam to capture him,

"each a platoon"? Idgi. One helicopter by platoon? A whole platoon? Something else?

>"Having your legs sawn off 6 different times was an unforgettable experience for me. To start my interrogation

Where does American came from in the machine tl? Did the algorithm mixed some characters or should it be something like:
>"Having your legs sawn off by Americans 6 different times was an unforgettable experience for me

>"As long as I reveal many of our army's secret facilities, it will be revealed and it will be completely detrimental. I would rather die than definitely not cooperate with the enemy, never sell your country"

ngl the whole sentence feels odd. Like the double negative makes it looks like he would rather die than not snitching, which I'm almost sure is the opposite of the message it's supposed to convey? From the context, I guess it would be something like:
>"If I confess any of our army's secret facilities, they would have been compromised and it will be completely detrimental. I definitely would rather die than cooperate with the enemy, never sell your country"
Am I missing something or making a misinterpretation somewhere?

>They did it section by section. Sometimes they cut off a full foot, sometimes only a sliver a few centimeters thick, until only stumps remained.


>After fighting the saw, the saw is finished healing, almost healing them are sawed again.

I wonder if sawing would work better than saw in some case? IIRC saw is the tool, sawing is the action isn't it? Also switch fighting to enduring maybe? adding a "when" somewhere?
>After enduring the sawing, when the sawing is finished healing or almost healing they were sawing again.

>he continued to operate, struggle, write leaflets, so he was classified as a pigheaded uncompromising prisoner.


>Detailed accounts can be found in local newspapers of each province
Did anybody attempted to gather thoses ?
I would be surprising that no historian ever worked on the subject.
Westerner historians looking away, I can picture it, but Vietnamese ones necessarly must have worked on it no?

Anyway I'll gather what you give me in a txt, as well as links and archives of the originals.
Always fucking archive because websites expire. Had the experience itt.

Also working on Chapter 23.


Some more translation notes.
>The title
The legend of the soldiers who had his legs sawed into 6 pieces.
Yup it’s a Huey helicopter. From detailed accounts he shot the pilot dead and made it crash landed.
Sure it’s a more subtle way to put it.
>After fighting the saw, the saw is finished healing, almost healing them are sawed again.
The gist of it is that after sawing, the CIA mended the wounds, waited for it to almost healed back, then they started sawing again. The grueling torture took months.

Some more news articles on the subject of Diem atrocities:
Also a PDF book on the subject of Kulakization of the peasantry under Diem. This bastard had an ass backwards view of the countryside that proposed the small owners (or kulaks) should be the lynchpin class of society. So rather than redistribution of farm land, he redistributed peasants to become glorified serfs for catholic kulaks.

I should really get started on making this article in English when I have the time. Some help on other language versions is welcomed.


I realized while comparing the formatting of the original and my txt that I missed a big chunk of the article. I will post the corrected and the missed part so far, the part of the other article you translated and the list of the other newspaper link + their archive counterpart in the following txt.
I put a * when I have some lingering doubt about the appropriatedness of some words and possible alternatives in square ( ).

I'll let you review it. I may be working more touroughly on the other articles after finishing the base book. In the meantime, could you continue the translation if you have spare time?
LaTex Anon could add them in addendum, or even better, we could do a proper article out of theses various works.

See that txts and others ITT for formatting.

>I should really get started on making this article in English when I have the time.

Great idea! That wouls also interest leftypedia
>Some help on other language versions is welcomed.
I can do french but do you speak it at least a bit yourself ? Because otherwise we'll have a hard time exchanging about the translation's quality. Or just make the english version then it will be used to make other versions.
Tl of tl generate loss of quality but i don't really see other ways.


Chapter 23!


morning all


Good afternoon.


>hid it in a secluded spot.
Hid myself in a secluded spot
>The last one I tried to kill myself, but thinking back on my vow not to kill myself, I decided to lure them close to destroying the gun.
I intended to use the last bullet on myself, but remembering the party vows against suicide, I decided to lure them into approaching to rob them of their rifles.
>fire pit
Engine/Fuel line
>Shang said when he was alive.
Lương said in the interview
>Rose, where they installed a beautiful “pink ball”*[slang for whores?]
I think the original name of the Villa should be kept as Hoa Hồng (The Rose). Also “bóng hồng” (pink shadow if translated literally) is usually used as a provocative euphemism for “beautiful but dangerous woman” similar to femme fatale.
Kind hearted
>they would be willing to hand over*[put?] a Lieutenant Colonel-level two-flowered uniform on his shoulders.
They would be willing to award him the rank of lieutenant colonel in the ARVN (to note instead of Stars and Stripes in most military ranking, the ARVN used flowers instead of stars)
>When I learned intelligence
During intel training
>but the girl I met was effeminate*[a proper/ decent woman? Or on the contrary extra provocative?].
The girl assigned to taking care of me was a formal and decent woman
>neglectfully revealing information about our revolutionary organization
Adding “waiting for me to” would make the sentence closer to the original writing.
>Listen to me, let's just say we're going to have $10,000
Please do what they say honey, if you’re willing to cooperate with them they’ll give you 10k$ for us to escape together
>cherry country
An old expression to mean Japan, a country famous for the cherry blossoms
>If you don't listen, the U.S. will smash your 2 feet because it's the foot of intelligence*[because this foot belong to a spy?]
If you refuse they’ll take away those courier legs of yours piece by piece (ironic punishment for revolutionary couriers for most of their travels were on foot).
More like “encouraged” or “goaded”
>Although he died*[agonized?] repeatedly
Enduring through repeated deadly shock and pain
>When the wounds on his feet did not heal*[The wounds on his feet had barely healed?]
Not even waiting for his wounds to even heal
>the most painful time.
The most traumatic period of my imprisonments
>Shang's memoir recorded.
As recorded in Mr Lương’s memoir
Being (but “creature” is more correct in translating the views of Americans to communists as “less than human”)
>In the meantime, could you continue the translation if you have spare time?
Oh yeah I’m at the moment translating the links I had posted. Alongside the concurrent project of translating HCM’s Road to Revolution (it’s difficult because his Vietnamese was an extremely archaic regional dialect heavy version compared to modern Vietnamese). The book is kinda like “How to do communist revolution for beginners”.
>I can do french but do you speak it at least a bit yourself
No unfortunately :((


Applying the correction with some of your remarks turned into footnotes.

>Being (but “creature” is more correct in translating the views of Americans to communists as “less than human”)

I think it's better to stick as close as possible to how Mr Lương’s reported his own ordeal, language level and connotations included, not what ourselves know about the mind of the different protagonists. If the word he chose is closer to "being", I'll keep being, if it's closer to "creature" I'll keep creature. Unless you find a closer english equivalent than both. I trust more a native speaker to decipher the nuances and connotations of a text than some tl algorithm.

Also can you look at the list of the decoration part? I doubt "American hero" iis a North distinction.

>project of translating HCM’s Road to Revolution

Imma hype

>No unfortunately :((

Well there will be need to put extra care in the english version to avoid loss of quality as much as possible when it will be used as a basis for other languages.


File: 1664125139171.png (324.01 KB, 335x506, vegeta knee.png)

Thank you based OP.


>14 times won the title of american hero
14 times awarded the title of American Slayer
Here’s the details on that title in particular:
>highest class: above 15 GIs
>1st class: kill 9 or wound 15 GIs
>2nd class: kill 6 or wound 9 GIs
>3rd class: kill 3 or wound 5 GIs
Dude got awarded 14 times what a legend.
>Imma hype
Here’s the full file. But I doubt machine translation would help due to ancient Vietnamese. A lot of the figure of speech needed further explanations.


Chpater 24, Indian genocide.


>But I doubt machine translation would help due to ancient Vietnamese.

When it comes to anicent expressions, machine tl still help sparing some time compared to translate from scratch. OTOH, It's likely the algorithms have been fed more material with westernlanguages, ancient or modern so I dont know if that strategy works as well with Vietnamese dialects.

Anyway keep it up!


File: 1664545106218-1.pdf (883.92 KB, 197x255, bboc.pdf)

chapter 17
Bath -> Ba'ath
Kowetis -> Kuwaitis
Kuwait Oïl -> Kuwait Oil
oil tankers -> oil barons
or summarily executed -> or were summarily executed
he decided to use all means to punish Iraq -> it decided to use all means to punish Iraq
The US is defeating three of them -> The US makes three of them fail
For this it was necessary the tutelage of a nation, the massacre of a population and the destruction of the productive apparatus of a country -> For this it was necessary to put the nation under tutelage, to massacre its population and to destroy the productive apparatus of the country
he would be hit -> it would be hit
he spends only -> it spends only
Frozen Iraqi contributions -> frozen Iraqi contributions

>Recherche english translation is research. However recherche can mean scientific inquiry, looking for something or someone. Is english more specific when it come to the word research?

research only means natural scientific research in English. oil exploration or maybe prospecting should be more accurate, but the latter only applies to minerals I think. see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocarbon_exploration
so: oil research -> oil exploration

>>If there is the problem of political freedom, women's freedom is acquired.

>What's the problem here? The author says that Iraq back then lacks stuff like freedom of speech or multipartism, but that women were mostly emancipated.
I think the grammar is very hard to parse

>in french it's l' abreviation of le an article which imply that specific thing so, "the" would be more relevant, but that's probably splitting hair in 4. If the air embargo is weird then let's go with air embargo.

I see the problem now. there is in the paragraph before a reference to "the embargo" with no embargo alluded to before that.
>After the war against Iran, the Americans immediately asked Iraq to reduce its military capacity and decreed the embargo to make it bend.
>On 6 August 1990, the Security Council decided on military and economic sanctions against Iraq. On 25 September, he imposed the air embargo.
who is "he" here? the Security Council? should be "it" in that case
>Here are some examples: US veto against the Security Council resolution that imposed the military and economic embargo on Israel in 1982 due to the occupation of Syrian territories.
saying "the" embargo here seems to imply that the embargo was actually put into effect. "imposed" also sounds wrong. maybe "the Security Council resolution that proposed a military and economic embargo on Israel"? or "would have imposed"

things left as-is:
>prime contractor

chapter 18
say's -> Say's
fifteen pennies the kilogramm -> fifteen pennies per kilogram
the least sick finished the most affected to eat them -> the least sick finished off the most affected and ate them
>>in French West Africa, a simple decree of October 23, 1904 simply annexed the territories
>>in French West Africa, a simple decree of October 23, 1904 just annexed the territories
I guess it doesn't matter. left it as-is
>Those in employment exploit picking rubber
added an \rfootnote{}
>> Ivory Coast forest
>don't know about that, the original have forest as an adjective for Ivory Coast. Not Ivory coast as complement of forest. I thought forest was both a verb and an adjective. Maybe foresty ivory coast?
ah, reverted to "forest Ivory Coast" for now then. maybe "forested areas of the Ivory Coast"?

>So i read a little bit about rubber, and it seems the method where rubber is harvested from hevea's bark crushed the otheres after lots of trials. I found a publication from 1932 where more than a dozen rubbery plants are mentionned, some of those whoese rubber was in their fruits or in liana.
I added that text as a proper citation in an rfootnote. this is also the first proper BibTeX citation in the text. maybe we could use BibTeX for the other citations too, those in the original text. we'll see
according to wikipedia Congo rubber was produced from a species of liana: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landolphia_owariensis
I cannot find any species whose fruits are used as a source of latex. which ones does the source mention specifically? I see the list of species but web searching each one is tedious. maybe Ficus Elastica?
I see also that the eternal Teuton has recently figured out how to make rubber from dandelions


whats the point of these cultist as fuck pictures, looking more correct than others on imageboards?



>I think the grammar is very hard to parse

How about "Although there are problems with political freedom, women's freedom is acquired"?

>who is "he" here? the Security Council? should be "it" in that case

That's right it's the counsil, and it's "it"

>saying "the" embargo here seems to imply that the embargo was actually put into effect.

Let's delete " the" then.
> "imposed" also sounds wrong. maybe "the Security Council resolution that proposed a military and economic embargo on Israel"? or "would have imposed"
Well for me "imposed" refer to that resolution's goal, which was to enforce an embargo, whether that resolution was implemented or not is another matter and not relevant to the sentence imo. Since we already delete "the",

<US veto against the Security Council resolution that imposed a military and economic embargo on Israel in 1982 due to the occupation of Syrian territories.

Would be fine. Of course if native english speakers would like to chime in, that would be great.

>I cannot find any species whose fruits are used as a source of latex. which ones does the source mention specifically?

The publication mention by example:

>Marsdenia verrucosa. — Liana quite common throughout the W, from Sofia to the extreme S. It gives, in small quantities, a rubber of low tenacity, especially by its fruits (12 to 30 gr. per plant and per year).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marsdenia (for the genus, verrucosa do not seem to have a page on its own.)

>Secamonopsis Madagascariensis. — It is in the form of a small bush, or a small liana of 1 to A cm. in diameter.

>It appears in Manambolo, and is especially common on sandy soils, in the S of Tsiribihina.
>The bush form is common on the dunes, between the Onilahy and the Tsiribihina; but it is of no interest, caries young twigs do not give >no rubber (Gf: Lombiro). Only the fruits are mined and provide 75 mgr. of rubber per follicle.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secamonopsis_madagascariensis (very limited recent publication)

Thoses aren't large quantities, no wonder hevea moped the floor with alternatives. But then again it's a study about Madagascar flora, mainland Africa could have some other species whose latex came from fruits, but probably nowhere as efficiant as the hevea bark.
Anyway any footnote o the subject would be quite laconic. I fpeople raise an eyebrow at "pickable" rubber, there is just need to mention that rubber used to come from various plants, some of those were more "picked" than "extracted".


I just came to the realization that among all the authors of this books, some aren't native french speakers, which would explain that some sentences have a slightly unusual grammar.
I wonder what to do about this. On one hand, changing the grammar would make the text a bit easier to read. On the other hand, it's usually better to stick as close as possible to the author's choice of words to not betray a text meaning.

Also doing chapter 25 right now.


Chapter 25 done.


Make it readable imo, and put the closer translation in a footnote.


File: 1664615458634.jpg (33.18 KB, 564x557, wassup.jpg)



For once, and like i used to in the beginning, I'll post the text of the next chapter in replies and then the txt.



Migrations in the XIXth and XXth century : contribution to capitalism's history

Men have always migrated and one can legitimately ask the question of why capitalism would have a particular responsibility for migration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Wouldn't this be a view of the mind, a bias against a system that, after all, only takes advantage of a natural phenomenon attested since prehistoric times, human migrations?

Traditionally, migration historians have broken down the causes of migration into two poles: repulsive causes and attractive causes.
Repulsive causes are the set of reasons that can push individuals to leave their place of life: misery, famines, wars, political or religious conflicts.
Attractive causes are the search for new land and the attraction of fortune. The same then make subtle distinctions between “spontaneous” and organized migrations.

Such definitions obviously guide the perception that one can have of migratory phenomena. First, repulsive causes and attractive causes combine in the majority of cases.
It is hard to imagine an individual driven from his home for many reasons looking for a place to live the same misery and persecution.
Second, the very notion of “spontaneous” migration is fallacious. Do we migrate spontaneously when fleeing intolerable political or economic situations?
It would probably be more appropriate to talk about forced migration and individual or collective routes.

Migration is in essence the consequence of extreme situations where the individual has as an escape only the departure to an unknown place and destiny.
It is then probably possible to distinguish between social advancement routes and survival migrations.
The social advancement route is planned by individuals who leave their place of residence with a medium- and long-term strategy of social advancement, for themselves or for the next generation.
Survival migration is the immediate response to intolerable situations: people flee to ensure their survival.
This type of migration often takes on a long-term character that the persons concerned had not originally expected.
Over the period in question, I will propose a classification — with the limits that any classification implies — distinguishing:
colonial migration, economic migration, and political migration. The two can also be combined.



Colonial migration

Colonial migrations were initiated by the colonization of the Americas as early as the sixteenth century. While population flows are regular, they remain limited by the weakness of technical means.
It is estimated that the number of Spaniards who went to colonize Latin America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries amounted to 2 million individuals, the Portuguese to 1 million.
The African slave trade would represent, for the same period, between 7 and 9 million individuals (349).

The influence of capitalism on migration finds its first expression here.
Faced with the material problem of the “development” of Latin America, the Spanish and Portuguese quickly compensated for the disappearance of Indian slaves by importing a workforce from Africa.
Captured, transported as vulgar commodities, African slaves are employed in mines and farms for the benefit of the European, Spanish and Portuguese elites, soon Dutch, French and English.

In the nineteenth century, the attention of Europeans turned to Asia, Oceania and Africa. Not that these continents have not been known before.
But the combined phenomena of the development of industrial capitalism and its imperatives (access to low-cost raw materials, development of new consumer markets, etc.),
and the development of technical means, facilitate conquests and allow the maintenance of the European presence in continents hitherto difficult to access.

Population flows were less to these continents than to the Americas.
Despite a strong ideological incitement, textbooks, colonial exhibitions, travelogues of geographical societies, religious propaganda magnifying the colonial enterprise, the millions of Europeans who were candidates for emigration preferred in their majority other destinations.

Economic necessity drove Europeans to leave for the colonies.
The testimony of Marguerite Duras on the small French settlers in Indochina (350), that of Simenon in his report published in 1932 in Voilà on colonial Africa, clearly show the springs of these departures:
a blocked future in metropolitan France, the possibility of living better in countries where, even without money, the European inevitably has an advantage over the colonized.
In his report entitled “The Hour of the Negro”, Simenon leaves no ambiguity. :
“ He (the European settler) will also leave because there, he has a boy who waxes his shoes and he can yell at him!
He will leave mainly because he has no other future, because places are scarce in France. (…)
There where, at least, the fact of being white, the last of the whites, is already a superiority… ”

Nineteenth-century politicians and theorists had advocated settlements. This bet was successful in Oceania:
Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania have become, like North America, colonies populated almost entirely by Europeans.
The English colonization left virtually no chance of survival for the Pacific peoples. The Tasmanians were completely exterminated (351).
Aboriginal Australians and Maori of New Zealand were massacred, turned back to the least productive land, herded into reserves (352).
They still do not stop dying slowly at the moment: unemployment, delinquency, alcoholism are their daily lot.

The colonization of Australia began in the late eighteenth century.
The British were careful to prevent the settlement of non-European populations, including Chinese and Japanese.
First populated by convicts (they were 150,000 in the mid-nineteenth century), Australia then attracted breeders, then gold miners from 1851 with the discovery of gold resources.
This colonization continued late since from 1946, the Australian government favored the settlement of 1,500,000 migrants, mainly British.
This migratory movement continues to this day: since the end of apartheid, many “petty whites”* from South Africa have settled in Australia.

Europeans have also tried to turn parts of Africa into settlements. South Africa and Rhodesia were frequent destinations for English migrants from 1806, when England took possession of the territory.
In addition to the pre-existing European colonization (353), there was a massive English colonization from 1820 onwards. This European population will experience another important surge from the 1860s with the discovery of gold and diamond mines.
The English colonization then invents the large-scale deportation of colonized from other continents: between 1860 and 1909, 120,000 Indians were sent to South Africa to work in conditions of quasi-slavery in the mining industry.

Other attempts ended in failure. From 1870, the France wanted to transform Algeria into a settlement.
Through a policy of automatic naturalization of Jewish Algerians (1870) and Europeans (1896), it succeeded in artificially increasing the European population. France sought to attract would-be emigrants by offering them land (354).
These peasant settlers were quickly overtaken by land restructuring, victims of the big settlers and financial companies that dispossessed them. The European population remained confined to the cities and ultimately grew little: it did not reach one million men in 1954 (355).
The war and the adherence of the majority of the European population to the repression of the Algerian national movement, then the policy of the OAS, pushed Europeans to leave Algeria in 1962, at the time of independence.

Finally, the last example of French colonization of settlement, New Caledonia. Annexed by the France in 1853, it first served as a prison.
Here too, the deportations of populations were used.
Faced with the resistance of the Kanak population (and the risk of its complete disappearance), the French “imported” from 1893 Japanese workers to work in the nickel mines, and Tonkinese migrants from 1924 under employment contracts that left them without any defense against the local French employers.
But the example of New Caledonia is interesting because of the voluntary policy of minorization of the Kanak people carried out rationally from 1972, at the instigation of the Prime Minister of the time, Pierre Messmer.

The latter, in a letter to the Minister of the DOM-TOM*(2), wrote then:
“New Caledonia, a settlement colony, although doomed to multiracial variety, is probably the last non-independent tropical territory in the world where a developed country can emigrate its nationals. (…)

<“In the short and medium term, the massive immigration of metropolitan French citizens or citizens from overseas departments (Reunion), should make it possible to avoid this danger (a nationalist demand, Editor's note),

< by maintaining and improving the digital relationship of communities. (…)

The success of this undertaking, which is essential to the maintenance of French positions east of Suez, depends, among other conditions, on our ability to finally succeed, after so many failures in our history, in an overseas settlement operation.”

Let us bet that the current situation in New Caledonia, a consequence of the implementation of this policy, pursued by all the governments that succeeded that of Pierre Messmer, reinforces the latter in his analyses.

>349 Figures on trafficking are controversial, with some putting forward the highly unlikely estimate of 100 million Africans deported.

>This does not stand up to analysis, especially when one takes into account the population density of Africa and the transport capacities of ships crossing the Atlantic.

>350 Le barrage contre le Pacifique(The dam against the Pacific)Paris, 1950

>351 The last Tasmanian died in 1874.

>352 At the end of the eighteenth century, the Aborigines were probably between 300,000 and 400,000 spread throughout the country. In 1989, there were 40,000 and 30,000 mixed.

>Recently, the Australian government was questioned about a policy carried out since the 1950s which consisted of removing Aboriginal children from their families and entrusting them to state institutions…
>Hundreds of children have been victims of these practices.

>353 Since the seventeenth century, Dutch and French migrants (Huguenots driven out by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes) have settled in South Africa, constituting a first nucleus of European settlement.

>At the beginning of the nineteenth century, before the arrival of the British, this settlement remained restricted.
>Confined to the Cape Province, it then included 80,000 people, including about 16,000 Europeans.

>354 The ravages of phylloxera in the vineyards (1878) actually pushed many wine farmers from the Midi to settle in Algeria.

>355 Europeans were 109,000 in 1847, 272,000 in 1872, 578,000 in 1896, 829,000 in 1921, 984,000 in 1954.

>* Petits blancs in the original, whose literal translation is little whites, an expression refering to poor whites settlers. White trash sounded too lumpen, little sounded like it was referring to height.)

>*(2) DOM-TOM :/emph{ Départements d'Outre Mer-Territoires d'Outre Mer} which means oversea departments- oversea territories.



Economic migration

European migration took on a truly massive character from the second half of the nineteenth century onwards with the industrial revolution that transformed the economies of some Western European countries - first and foremost England, Germany and France - mostly rural into economies of an industrial nature.

The English peasants were among the first to bear the brunt of the industrial revolution. From the beginning of the nineteenth century, England caught in a global process of economic transformation, reformed its agricultural production.
Agriculture, competing on the English domestic market by European and colonial agriculture, was replaced by livestock. The English peasants who had become useless were driven off the land.
The inability of infant industries to absorb all of this workforce forced many English to move to North America, India, Africa and Oceania. From 1825 to 1920, 17 million Englishmen left their country (356).

Germany experienced a similar phenomenon: between 1820 and 1933, 6 million Germans emigrate to the United States, Brazil and Argentina.
Most European countries, including Eastern Europe (357), with a time lag in relation to Western Europe, are experiencing these phenomena of emigration. United States and Latin America absorbs the bulk of European emigrants.

France is a special case. Its lack of demographic dynamism – the nineteenth-century France is a sparsely populated country – combined with the fact that its agriculture resisted better than English agriculture during the industrial revolution, makes this country a pole of immigration.

The case of Ireland in the nineteenth century is exemplary. Ireland was then a rural country whose inhabitants were largely small farmers living on tiny farms.
Between 1814 and 1841, Ireland's population grew from 6 million to 8 million.
Crop failures following potato disease from 1846 to 1851 caused famines.
Combined with cholera epidemics, they are responsible for the disappearance of a million people.
In the same period, one million Irish left their country for England, Australia, Canada or the United States. This migratory flow is not drying up.

The majority of Irish migrants embarked for the United States (358), until around the 1920s when restrictive laws blocked their entry into the United States.
From then on, migratory flows shifted towards Great Britain. The United States offered greater opportunities for promotion and social success than England.
They also showed greater religious tolerance than England, a colonizing country - Ireland would gain its independence in 1921 - and an oppressor.

In 1890, the Irish outnumbered the irish outside the country than in Ireland itself.

Throughout the nineteenth century, the Irish developed a culture of emigration. The price of the boat for the crossing of the United States was collected at the level of the family network and the neighborhood.
It could also be sent by family members already settled abroad. Disembarked in the United States, Canada, Australia, the Irish migrant was never isolated because he found networks of mutual aid.
Arriving in the host country, he joined the migrants who had preceded him, settling in the same city and in the same neighborhood. The mutual aid network welcomed him, housed him, and gave him a job.

Although rural, Irish migrants in countries of immigration have settled in the majority in cities. Poorly skilled even in the field of agriculture, they had greater opportunities for survival in urban areas.
In 1940, 90% of the Irish in the United States were spread out in cities. Half of them lived in the five largest American cities, New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston and San Francisco.

In their way of migrating and settling with a focus on community-based relationships, the Irish in the United States did not differ from other migrants at the same time:
Italians, Russians, Armenians, Eastern European Jews, Chinese, Japanese, etc. proceed in the same way by recreating networks of sociability with their compatriots in the host country.
For the migrant, it is a question of reconstituting a privileged social space. For him, it is a question of survival in an environment that is generally hostile.
It was not until the second generation that these privileged relationships faded. They continue thanks to political, cultural, religious associations, etc.

Without over-extrapolating, we realize that “community” solidarities (359) — solidarity in departure, solidarity in arrival, solidarity in integration processes — still function in the same way today.

Economic migration is not necessarily intercontinental migration. In many cases, migration is transcontinental migration, or even internal migration.

France, a country of immigration since the nineteenth century, welcomed since the 1850s Belgians, Poles, Italians, Spaniards, attracted by the employment opportunities offered by the country.
At the same time, this demand was partly met by internal migration in the country. Rural French people left their land very early to migrate to the cities in search of a complementary income (360) or more remunerative work.
The nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century saw men and women from the most repulsive regions leave their “country” to work “in the city”.
It can be the capital of the canton as the regional capital or Paris. Their routes are often similar to intercontinental migrations.
Bretons, Corsicans, Auvergnats, to name the most numerous, arrive in the city where they welcome solidarity networks similar to those of foreign migrants.

The reactions against them are not tender. How many texts, newspaper articles to denounce these provincials as “dirty”, “crude”, “unassimilable”…
How many others to explain that the Poles do not practice “the same Christianity” as the French and that they are not able to integrate into French society.

In all cases, there is a phenomenon of competition on the labour market between nationals and migrants, exacerbated in the event of economic difficulties, and which employers know how to take advantage of to lower wages.

France of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century experienced numerous abuses against migrants. The North and Pas-de-Calais were agitated throughout this period by caning, manhunts and collective expulsions.
In 1892, in Drocourt, in the Pas-de-Calais, the French population organized to expel the Belgian families settled in the village. Among the most dramatic abuses, the pogrom of which the Italians were victims in Aigues-Mortes in 1893 caused many wounded and deaths.

This type of collective violence seems to be banned today. Although the chronicles of the news are rich in attacks and murders of a racist nature.
The young man thrown into the Seine in Paris on May 1, 1995, during the demonstration of the National Front by a group of skinheads shows how temptations and risks exist.

>356 80% of them settled in the United States and Canada, 11% in Australia, 5% in South Africa.

>357 From 1875 to 1913, 4 million nationals of the Austro-Hungarian Empire emigrated. From 1900 to 1914, Russia had only 2.5 million emigrants, many of them Poles and Jews driven out by intensifying religious persecution.

>358 Between 1876 and 1926, 84% of Irish emigrants left for the United States.

>359 The term “community” is, like the term “ethnicity”, of delicate use. It assumes that migrants from the same country form a coherent whole, with collective and identity reactions.

>Nothing is less certain. There are networks of sociability, more or less well organized.
>In this case, in the absence of a more suitable term, this term refers to the reception network around the migrant, his family, his neighbors, relationships …

>360 Many rural French, Spanish or Italian people sought paid employment during the off-peak seasons, which they left to return to cultivate and harvest.

>This is the case whenever a farm is too small to support the family. In some cases, it is the children who offer their services in this way, while waiting to settle in turn on the family farm.



Politically motivated migration

Politically motivated migration is a thing of history. Many could be cited.
They result in massive migrations of populations, some of which disappear almost completely from the places where they traditionally lived.

Among the most important, if a hierarchy is possible, we must speak of the migrations of Eastern European Jews driven out by pogroms and persecutions throughout the nineteenth century.
This classic phenomenon of exacerbation of hatred and use of racism in a general context of transformation of European societies came to a head with the Second World War and the systematic extermination of Jews carried out by the Nazis.
The Jews of Eastern Europe who escaped extermination chose in their great majority to expatriate, to Israel, the United States, western Europe. In some countries, Poland for example, Jews have practically disappeared.

The genocide perpetrated by the Turks and Kurds against the Armenians between 1915 and 1923 had similar consequences.
Massacres and population displacements orchestrated by the Turkish authorities of the time left no choice to the Armenians who had to flee Cilicia, a region of Asia Minor where they had lived for centuries.
While some of them joined Soviet Armenia, many others took refuge in Europe and the United States. Along with the genocide of the Jews during the Second World War, the Armenian genocide remains one of the greatest traumas of the twentieth century.

The twentieth century is rich in political and military events that forced entire peoples to flee.
No continent is exempt from these phenomena, which are all problems left unresolved and which promise future conflicts: Palestinians, Saharawis, etc. For some, the wait has been going on for decades.

The misery orchestrated by the capitalist system, in which countries are kept, is more than ever conducive to the development of fascist ideologies ranging from Islamism to ethnicism.
Currently, peoples and their leaders have fewer and fewer demands in terms of revolution and resistance to the established order, and more and more in terms of opposition between peoples, populations, ethnicities, communities, etc.
Many countries are experiencing situations of implosion, which result in internal conflicts and the departure of population groups: this is the case in Mauritania, Rwanda, Burundi…



The current situation

While Europeans made up the bulk of migrants in the nineteenth century, from the 1920s to the 1930s, flows became scarce.
The great change came after the Second World War: it was then the peoples of other continents who became candidates for migration.

This is not really new. Since the First World War, European countries have asked their colonies to send men into battle, but also to compensate for the lack of manpower.
French industry thus solicited Indochinese, Algerians, Moroccans, some of whom remained in metropolitan France after the conflict.
In the same movement, recruiters brought to France, as early as the 1910s, several hundred Chinese for a limited period of time, who were employed as labourers, workers, nurses, etc.

Mass migration began after the Second World War.
Recruiters are then numerous and determined to bring in cheap labor, which can not have significant requirements in terms of social protection and comfort of life, at the request of large mining, automotive, construction and public works companies.
These were all sectors that required a low-skilled workforce accepting difficult working conditions.

The turning point took place in the 1970s. Faced with the economic crisis that is looming, in the face of industrial restructuring, the French government announces its desire for “zero immigration”.
France, like Western Europe, no longer needs migrants. They cannot, according to a formula that will make a fortune later, "welcome all the misery of the world".

As a result, rich countries set up legal barriers and a police arsenal to restrict the entry into their territories of these migrants from countries sometimes described as “Third World countries”, “underdeveloped countries”, “developing countries”, “countries of the South”…

This policy is mixed with a practice of great hypocrisy which consists in employing migrants, preferably in an illegal situation, in companies at prices lower than nationals.
By imposing wages below the wages commonly applied, companies know that in the more or less long term, it is everyone's wages that will fall.

For example, California's large farms employ illegal Mexican workers in plain sight.
It is Mexican workers who are hunted down by U.S. police when crossing borders, while the companies that exploit them are never worried.
The same hypocrisy has prevailed and still prevails in France where, in the name of competition, contractors impose prices that do not allow subcontractors to earn a living, except to use hidden work.

But the most distorted view comes from the French political debate.
Indeed, listening to each other's speeches, one might think that hordes of hungry people are at our borders, ready to sweep over France and Europe.
It is not measuring current realities. Indeed, migration flows to rich countries are very much in the minority.
They account for barely a fifth of global migration flows, which is small.

There are several reasons for this. First of all, most would-be emigrants have very few funds to begin with.
They are therefore part of migration processes that are more about survival than anything else.
For example, these 1.5 million Asian women, now registered as migrants, go to offer their services in very low-skilled occupations (housekeepers, domestic workers) or for prostitution.
Some suffer situations that are practically slavery.
Pakistani or Filipino migrants, for example, forced to move to the Gulf States - major recruiters of labour from the Third World - have their passports confiscated as soon as they arrive and are forced to work under any conditions.

The case of a Sarah Balabagan*(3), or, closer to us, a Véronique Akobé*(4), are indicative of the new conditions available to migrants: more and more precariousness, less and less security.

The second reason is the restrictions on emigration to rich countries, which are implementing increasingly repressive strategies against migrants.
While the rich countries have directly benefited from the impoverishment of the countries of the Third World, constituting part of their wealth on the plundering of resources, feeding on their underdevelopment and indebtedness, they now refuse to take charge of the logical consequences of this situation.

Third reason, capitalism is a system in constant evolution and adaptation. Today, the technical constraints are different from those that prevailed in the 1950s.
Why produce in rich countries where it is necessary to pay — more or less — correctly for labour and to respect the laws of labour, when it is enough to relocate the units of production to benefit from a workforce whose wage is so low that it becomes marginal in the total cost of production.
This is how the weight of the salary on the price of a pair of Nike shoes represents 0.125% of its selling price… It is easy to understand that Moulinex closes its production plants in Alençon to settle in Mexico.

In all eras, capitalism has been able to stimulate large migratory flows for its needs. When he did not directly stimulate them, it knew how to take advantage of them.
We are currently living in a period of transition where migration is no longer necessarily a benefit for capitalism as before.

Caroline Andreani

Caroline Andreani is a historian.
*(3) Sarah Balabagan, is a Filipina who was employed as a housemaid in the United Arab Emirates. She killed her employer in self-defense while he was trying to rape her.
She was sentenced to seven years imprisonment and ordered to pay 150,000 dirhams (US$40,000) in blood money to her employer's relatives, while at the same time awarded 100,000 dirhams (US$27,000) as compensation for the rape
However, the prosecution appealed the verdict, calling for the death penalty. On September 6, 1995, a second Islamic court found no evidence of rape and convicted her of premeditated murder, sentencing her to death by firing squad.
At her third trial, her sentence was reduced to a year's imprisonment and 100 strokes of the cane, along with payment of blood money.
*(4) Véronique Akobé, an undocumented Ivorian woman who have been employed as a maid by a Grasse industrial. She was raped by her employer and his son.
At the third collective rape, she wounded her boss and killed his son. Arrested in 1987, sentenced to 20 years in jail in 1990, she was pardoned in 1996


I can't settle for a single way to insert my own footnotes to save my life.
I apologize to LaTex Anon.


it's OK
also good morning

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