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Hello, I was petting my dog earlier today, he's pretty old, and it got me wondering - why, evolutionarily speaking, do animals or organisms in general (including humans) keep on living after they are no longer able to reproduce due to age?

Wouldn't it be better for the survival of the species if they just died after they couldn't have kids anymore? Evolutionarily they have no purpose right?

Is it just so they can help to raise offspring? But elderly animals continue to consume resources that could go towards young, so isn't it still a net loss overall?


Evolution is just a description of what happens, it does not give purpose to anything. Nothing has "evolutionary purpose", it's a meaningless term.


>why, evolutionarily speaking, do animals or organisms in general (including humans) keep on living after they are no longer able to reproduce due to age?
Older members of a community can provide guidance (think village elders and matriarchal/patriarchal familial structures), care (thanks tondecades of knowledge and experience in treating people, modern medicine is not very old), education, and so on. You see this in mammals, where the older members are the guides/leaders cause they know where the water is, food, shelter, where to move, seasons, etc.
>Wouldn't it be better for the survival of the species if they just died after they couldn't have kids anymore? Evolutionarily they have no purpose right?
No. Who'd protect the offspring? This is especially true for humans. We're unique in the animal kingdom because out offspring can't realistically take care of themselves for ten years or more.
>Is it just so they can help to raise offspring? But elderly animals continue to consume resources that could go towards young, so isn't it still a net loss overall?
Their value far outweighs what they use in resources. Some human cultures have practiced senicide.


>a thread died for this
back to >>>/leftypol/

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Thread for PDFs related to the 'Anti-Anglo reading group - left deviation'
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Machine Dreams. Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science (Cambridge, 2002)


Van Horn, Mirowski, & Stapleford (eds.) – Building Chicago Economics. New Perspectives on the History of America’s Most Powerful Economics Program (Cambridge; Historical Perspectives on Modern Economics, 2011)



Later Ionian & Athenian Thinkers, Part 2 [Atomists] {cor.} (Harvard; Loeb Classical Library 530, 2016)


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There are people who spend their entire lives reading Hegel and still manage to come out empty handed.

ITT we discuss the great thinker, Karl Marx's teacher, and he on who's shadow we walk:

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

1. What are good things to read/view to get an understanding of Hegel from a philosophical neophyte?

2. What service can Hegel's philosophy provide us today?

3. What an be done to make Hegel more accessible to the masses? Why is it so unpenetrable?
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Since Hegel is in vogue, here's the dedicated Hegel thread.


You will never fully understand Hegelianism unless you understand Leibnizism and Kantianism.
Let that sink in.


Thats not that bad, you learn Kantianism in regular philosophy anyway and having that foundation will let you study anyone.


This guy's youtube channel is very good. I've enjoyed every video I've seen.

This particular one is longer than usual, but absolutely great. Goes over some basic hegelian ideas, offhandedly dismisses people like Cockshott that claim that Hegel is not necessary to understand Marxism (that is bait), in general it's a very good video of a broad view of Hegelianism, highly recommended.


Thanks to the anon who pointed out this recent release in the /ITG/ thread. I've been watching it in segments for the entire week lmao.


/ourguy/ just posted another video on Hegel, but also as it related to Marx and Neitzsche.

I haven't seen it in it's entirety, but the first few minutes already has important points that many self proclaimed Marxists here don't understand.

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What did Marx think about democratic Athens?
What did Marx say about George Washington?
What about Lutheranism?
What about primitive communism?

Everyone from Oxford to Britannica has their own reference works on Marx's own ideas, but which one is the most responsive and comprehensive for actual Marxists to use? Is Hal Draper usable as an encyclopedia? If not, then who?

I want to understand his practical takes as well as his abstract ideas. Book worship is surely an evil to be avoided, but total ignorance of the man's own perspectives is one I hold far worse.



I remember an anon made a post a while back about mass-searching the MECW for keywords. But it seems to me that this overlooks the benefits a topical index would provide. At any rate I don't know how to grep search or whatever it would entail, but I can fool with it. Thanks

 No.2085[Reply][Last 50 Posts]

If you know French or German, please contribute a chapter to /leftypol/'s first crowdsourced translation project! This project started on >>691.

The book is Karl Kautsky's history of the French Revolution, originally published as Die Klassengegensätze im Zeitalter der Französischen Revolution in 1889. Coming from the "Pope of Marxism", as Kautsky was then known, this text likely had an immense influence on Lenin and other revolutionaries of his day. It was approved by Engels himself, and may have been foundational in establishing the Marxist theory of bourgeois revolution, yet it has never been translated into English. The original German is available here: https://www.marxists.org/deutsch/archiv/kautsky/1908/frev/index.html and an old French translation is available here: https://www.marxists.org/francais/kautsky/works/1889/00/antagonismes-table.htm

What makes this work especially good for us to translate is that it's relatively short - just around 60 pages in total, divided into 10 chapters. With each chapter being 5-7 pages each, it is conceivable to translate a chapter in one day's volunteer work. Comrade Akko has already translated the preface, and is working on chapter 1. That leaves 9 chapters to complete:

Preface: Complete!
Chapter 1: Second draft complete (French)
Chapter 2: Draft complete (French) - Proofreading complete (English)
Chapter 3: Draft complete (French) - Proofreading in progress (English) - Proofreader needed
Chapter 4: Draft complete (French) - Proofreading complete (English)
Chapter 5: Draft complete (French) - Proofreading complete (English)
Chapter 6: Draft complete (French) - Proofreading in progress (English) - Proofreader needed
Chapter 7: Draft complete (French) - Proofreading in progress (English) - Proofreader needed
Chapter 8: Complete! (Copyrighted work, permission secured)
Post too long. Click here to view the full text.
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I have had some health issues that kept me from working on this, I will start next week. By May, every chapter will be translated and what will be needed is a global proofreading.


I am just an anon with nothing to contribute to the project here, but I'd just like to say that you all are doing amazing work and wish you all the best! This /edu/ board has already surpassed the /edu/ boards on bunkerchan or 8chan with this contribution. Many thanks to your hard work!



Is it done yet?


Well, I have had some more health issues recently but it seems OP came back (it would be nice if he could confirm this here) and is ready to finish the proof reading so if that's the case I will try to translate the last chapter as fast as my IRL schedule allows me.

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Post Copy pastas, videos and books which debunk common Fascist, Liberal talking points which are repeated often.
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Starting from Top Left:

1. Former elected leader of Iran in the 1950s who wanted to take control of the nation's oil instead of BP, Britain got our President to authorize CIA to take him out and install the Shah, a brutal dictator.

2. Elected leader of one the South American countries who was also kicked out by the CIA and then a dictator was installed in the 1950s.

3. Osama bin Laden, whom the USA funded against the Soviet Union (russia) in the 70s, 80s. He later created the attack on the twin towers.

4. Guy who revealed that the CIA was importing cocaine from South America to fund stuff that Congress and the American people would not agree to (dirty money under the table). Not surprisingly he ended up with a "suicide" bullet to the back of his head.

5. Colin Powell, who stated that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction, letting US invade and destroy what was left of Iraq and thus created ISIS.

6. ISIS, which was created because the US invaded Iraq and Obama decided to fund Syrian "moderates" who wanted to take over Syria. They then turned out to be psychopaths.


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This might be one of the most retarded fascoids we got on this site lmfao
>You fags literally changed the subject to "muh economicssss"
If you think technological development is disconnected from economics, you literally have the brain of an insect
>NOOOOOOO it makes a lot of sense, you're just too uyghur brained to get it retard!!!!!!!
Then elaborate, faggot. Why does the CIA want to rehabilitate the enemy they put so much work into vilifying? Lemme answer that for you, they don't.
>pls define class for me I'm too retarded to use google let alone function in society
A class is a group of people who share economic interests. For workers. who live by selling their labour, their interest lies in maximizing wages while minimizing work. For the owner class, it's maximizing profits at the expense of the former. Hence, there is a class conflict. Class is not leadership you actual shit brained monkey lol. Please read literally any book, start with The Hungry Hungry Caterpillar since it seems just about fit for someone of your intellect.


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>"Stalin was a mass murderer!"
<"No he wasn't, he was a mass executioner, because murder implies a broken law against killing and all killings under him were absolutely legal under positive law."
<Holocaust was not legal
<There was actually an extensive debate whether the Holocaust was "legal" or not amongst German jurisprudence. The overall consensus is, no, it was not, because technically the Weimar constitution was still in effect and none of the "emergency laws" (Notstandsgesetz) that allowed Hitler to stay in power would have given cover to such a thing.

> Australian historian and archival researcher Stephen G. Wheatcroft posits that "[t]he Stalinist regime was consequently responsible for about a million purposive killings, and through its criminal neglect and irresponsibility it was probably responsible for the premature deaths of about another two million more victims amongst the repressed population, i.e. in the camps, colonies, prisons, exile, in transit and in the POW camps for Germans. These are clearly much lower figures than those for whom Hitler's regime was responsible." Wheatcroft also says that, unlike Hitler, Stalin's "purposive killings" fit more closely into the category of "execution" than "murder", given he thought the accused were indeed guilty of crimes against the state and insisted on documentation, whereas Hitler simply wanted to kill Jews and communists because of who they were, and insisted on no documentation and was indifferent at even a pretence of legality for these actions.[158]

Soviet socialism had such a rough start with many casualties because they had to create defenses against imperial capitalists that were about to do a WW2. The people that died during the rushed buildup for the defensive war machine the Soviets needed to survive were also casualties of WW2. Most of the more repressive elements of the Soviet state were caused by contradictions of building socialism within a world that still had a capitalist superstructure. If all the capitalist countries would have been peaceful neighbors (like that would ever happen), there never Post too long. Click here to view the full text.


ay guys, I saw this image. Is it true or something missing. There's no sources.


For one thing this sounds suspect as fuck. Secondly, as someone that experienced "High-Quality" American Schooling… it's a load of bullshit. There is 0 standardized learning, metric systems are covered only in science classes and even then only High-School. College Prep coursed do nothing to actually prepare you for college, and Honors are barely good enough. Teachers are only so good as what they teach and in the capitalist system you aren't learning shit. On top of that, schooling does nothing to help in home life, as people's material conditions mean that they're still going to underperform. On top of that the encouragement of ghetto gang "culture" also negatively reinforces a lack of education or pretending of such, meaning that people are unmotivated to become educated or act educated because they risk ostricization from their own folks. The reason Soviet Education is so famous in Europe is because it had a very strict grounding on not being race focused, and on children having equal opportunity to learn and reinforcement of motivation in culture. Even a criminal could be well read and cultured because there was no CIA encouraging a certain race to consider education as "uncool".

TL;DR: It's under capitalism, no shit its gonna probably fail; they're just changing some funding, not the direction of the education itself.

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I thought leftypol could use a general /lit/ thread, maybe mainly to discuss fiction and poetry and everything in between since theory and philosophy is widely discussed in many other threads. And I guess aspiring writers could also ask for feedback and advice in this thread.

I would like to start off by asking for some recommendations of leftypol approved Latin American authors and works. Stuff I've already read and enjoyed include: Cien años de soledad, Crónica de una muerte anunciada, Pedro Páramo, El llano en llamas and Cuentos de amor de locura y de muerte.

Maybe /hobby/ would be more fit for a thread like this, but /edu/ could do with some more activity, I reckon.


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>Cuentos de amor de locura y de muerte
yooo thats lit
you finna check out picrel dawg that shit fire😂😂😂😂😂🤣🤣crakkkas couped him tho crazy


I really like The Hour of the Star by Clarice Lispector. She was a Ukrainian-born Brazilian, idk if that counts.


Para contribuir con el hilo, to contribute with the thread, two books that I found
One from the indigenist author Arguedas and the other a compilation of tales by Ribeyro (from this one I recomend the At the foot of the hill) sadly, it doesn't have Alienation, one of my favourite tales from him.


thanks for the recs


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Thoughts on Bolaño? I kinda wanna get into him and read pic related, but it's just so fucking long…

 No.1855[Reply][Last 50 Posts]

Was the Meiji restoration and "restoring power to the emperor" a good or bad thing in 18th century Japan for the peasants? It marked the upper class revolution that caused the samurai feudal system to transition into a capitalist system. (Which ultimately turned into a racist imperialist empire that tried to invade and oppress all of its neighbors in Asia in a sort of fascist system, and as Japan lost the war the people starved and suffered greatly.)

I just found this photograph btw. Samurai didn't look nearly as impressive as I thought they would, and that hairdo is "objectively ugly."

There were a lot of peasant revolutions/movements that tried to go against the samurai but they all ultimately failed so no one except historians talk about them. Unfortunately too, the people who study Japanese history appear to be mostly weebs who romanticize the samurai so much that you never get to hear about the peasents' movements.
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Kek what a fantastical AU shitpost


Excellent Russian video analyzing the Dzaibutsu of Imperial Japan and how they brought about militarism in the country with economic analysis. This is part 2 of Imperial Japan from a dialectical analysis

Японский фашизм: дзайбацу by
Держать Курс

Part I: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3pEf8SVNqI
Умри за Императора. Капитализм с самурайской спецификой.


Are there english subtitles?


I didn't check, but CC+translation works for these. If there aren't… then that's a damn shame because this video is probably the closest to a bulletproof historical video essay on the dialectics of Imperial Japanese socio-economics and ideology that I have seen. Literally no other work I know of has covered the subject in such expansive detail with marxist analysis.


The subtitles are in russian. You can translate them automatically, but you just get some google translate low quality translation. Well better than nothing I guess…

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Any one has any reads on atheism that are not just "I hecking love science" like the new atheism movement was?
I remember seeing a book about atheism and german idealism; or idealism in general but I can't seem to find it.
Either way let's just talk about atheism in general.


Show some respect, those "anglos" invented modern materialist atheism.
Anyway vid related may interest you


I'll bookmark this but it'll take time before I get to it





This is part of the reading series we're doing in the Continental Floppa reading group formerly the anti-Anglo reading group. The plan is to read 1 chapter per week (breaking up chapter 3 into the 3 lectures). This is a selection of lectures and essays by Louis Althusser on the topics of philosophy relative to science and politics. This thread is for discussion and to invite people to the reading group, which can be found here https://matrix.to/#/!mjlMGagFTDhvgxMWhY:matrix.org/

Our schedule has recently changed. We now discuss on Sundays.
UTC (UTC +0) 19:00 (5pm) Universal time
EDT (UTC -4) 15:00 (3pm) Eastern US (daylight savings time)
CEST (UTC +2) 21:00 (7pm) Central Europe (summer time)

The next session will be Sunday 27th June, covering essay 1:
Theory, Theoretical Practice and Theoretical Formation: Ideology and Ideological Struggle
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French edition if anyone cares. [Bookmarked; no links]


Is the full list of this decided/available somewhere? Would love to do the reading but unfortunately don't have much time for discussion. Looking for stuff to share with my local org


Turchetto – Althusser & Monod. A 'New Alliance'? (Historical Materialism 17.3, 2009: 61-79)


We are currently doing a thing where everybody takes turns suggesting reading. The next text hasn't been decided yet.


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After reading chapter/essay 6, I had alot to commentate on it and was planning on talking about it in the group chat, but I didn't catch the memo and it was for nothing. For those who've read it &'re interested here is what I wanted to talk about.

If there's any needing of explaining or backing up of a page number, then I'll reply and add it. If you're interested in dunking on me, go ahead. Anyway before talking about the problems I had, I'll first go over the summary points:

(The reason why for letters being put infront of the points is because they're contexts of the critiques I have).

=Philosophies default properties=
>[a] Philosophy requires science to birth it
>[a/b] Philosophy is inherently selfish since views itself as a gate of logic

=Philosophy default Actions=
>[a] Philosophy tries to make sense of contradictions, not because of interest, but because it's sense of logic
<It's similar to libertarians being against there being a state, but in the interest of running a corporation
>[a]Philosophy conceives the notion that: "Knowledge is power", which in turn makes it justify:
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