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/edu/ - Education

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Post videos of 1800s life.

>Man Born in 1867 Talks About Working in the 1880s - Filmed in 1930 - Colorized & Restored Video

>Albert l. Salt, born in 1867, was 14 years old when he began working for Western Electric in 1881. He rose up through the ranks to become President of the Graybar Company, which was spun off from Western Electric in 1925 and handled their electrical appliance market. Graybar is still in business today and was named after the founders of Western Electric, Elisha Gray and Enos Barton. This was filmed in 1930.



>Ex Slaves talk about Slavery in the USA

>A story done by ABC News in 1999 about slavery as told by people who were slaves. Recorded in the 1940's.


>Rebecca Latimer - 94yrs old born 1835 - US Senator & Slave owner

>filmed 1929


everyone in the comment section is going on a list

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 No.2940[Reply][Last 50 Posts]

Hello comrades. I propose a general thread in an attempt to get the /edu/ ball rolling again. Everytime you visit /edu/, post in this thread. Tell us about what you're thinking about, what you're reading, an interesting thing you have learned today, anything! Just be sure to pop in and say hi.
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Reading Midnight Rising by Tony Horwitz and I just want to reiterate that John Brown did absolutely nothing wrong


Would anyone be interested in a weekly country discussion?
Where every week we pick a country and investigate its history, current conflicts, situation with socialists, major players etc?

I'm very ignorant on most of the world. I sometimes discover new countries I had no idea existed. I think it could be a fun exercise.


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>tfw you and your army of sons will never butcher five rightoid settlers with broadswords like some kinda scene out of the bible


god that was so epic


I can't seem to will myself to read any theory lately. Instead, I've been reading the Foundation series by Asimov. They are very fun books! Very recommended to any Marxist, and anyone really.

Idk if I'm burnt out of reading theory, I just don't seem to care that much. Two years ago I was really excited to read marx. Not sure what happened.


Hegel’s ​Phenomenology of Spirit
Presented by Todd McGowan

What follows are some very accessible lectures that will walk you through The Phenomenology. It's a great place to start, not only with Hegel, but even philosophy generally. Don't be scared off if you're a layman. Included along with the lectures are a handy glossary of terms and McGowan's own summary. Everything you need to climb the mountain to Absolute Knowing.

Sorry if the recordings are wonky and i had to cut some of these in half due to file limits
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Almost there


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The End.

Wonder if anyone will actually make it all the way through.


Very useful PDFs, thanks.naziNazi


Can this thread be merged into >>4337 please?
This thread has good resources and is already dying without any discussion. It would be a good addition to the thread above. Many thanks.

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 No.4337[Reply][Last 50 Posts]

There are people who spend their entire lives reading Hegel and still manage to come out empty handed.

ITT we discuss the great thinker, Karl Marx's teacher, and he on who's shadow we walk:

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

1. What are good things to read/view to get an understanding of Hegel from a philosophical neophyte?

2. What service can Hegel's philosophy provide us today?

3. What an be done to make Hegel more accessible to the masses? Why is it so unpenetrable?
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more(I am not good at small quotes)
>Thus, for Bergson, and Deleuze after him, the obstacles which present themselves to our understanding of the structure of reality are no longer rendered as absolute limits of human consciousness. Rather, the obstacles which stand between consciousness and the world itself are merely the bad habits of thought which have served useful and important functions in the evolution of the human species but come back to haunt, and plague, how we approach the question of determining Being itself.

>It is precisely this question – of a continuum of relation (Duration) that yields discontinuity as the condition for discrete objects (Matter) – that lies at the heart of Bergson’s project. That is, what brings Bergson into close proximity to Hegel is their shared commitment to the idea that it is not the subject which provides the transcendental guarantee between representation and the world. Rather, it is the world itself which is constituted by continuity and discontinuity; that is, it is because Nature is structured in this way, and because Nature produces Thought itself, that we can subsequently articulate why it is the case that we can posit the idea that human consciousness has something fundamental in common with the reality of Nature. The important addition here being that consciousness mirrors Nature in such a way that what guarantees the objectivity of our experience isn’t so much space, time, and the categories; rather, it is the common structure of ‘self relating negativity’ in Hegel, or ‘real duration’ in Bergson, which Nature engenders within human consciousness that now replaces the guarantee of objectivity via the transcendental subject. This is something that we see explicitly in Bergson:

<“Evolution implies a real persistence of the past in the present, a duration which is, as it were, a hyphen, a connecting link. In other words, to know a living being or natural system is to get at the very interval of duration, while the knowledge of an artificial or mathematical system applies only to the extremity. Continuity of change, preservation of the past in the present, real duration – the living being seems, then, to share these attributes with consciousness. Can we go further and say that life, like conscious activity, isPost too long. Click here to view the full text.


Thanks m8


Sweet. Thanks, anon.


Posting this video, and referencing this thread with related discussion: https://leftypol.org/leftypol/res/561707.html


Short video by the comrades over on Midwestern Marx regarding Hegel to Marx.

The presenter argues that Hegel is much more materialist than we give him credit for, and the presenter connects the philosophical movement from Hegel to Marx.

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 No.2083[Reply][Last 50 Posts]

So some of you may have read the quite popular pdf where Rafiq dunks on eco fetishism, in that thread he references a previous thread where he had spent a lot of time focusing in on eco-fetishism, however this thread has been lost from Revleft. It's available on internet archives but to preserve it I've made this in the style of the previous popular pdf. Hope you guys enjoy!

This thread could serve to discuss this work if anyone ever dedicates the time to read it, or we could debate the place of ecology in modern day Marxism. To provoke discussion: does nature have any value outside how it immediately serves human interests?
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No idea. There's a chance a lot of what you see on stream is just an act for the sake of gaining exposure.
That or drugs. Happened to Nick Land, for example. Seems to be a thing with internally tormented far left thinkers.


This is crazy actually


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With this image having been posted in /itg/, this all but confirms Haz's identity, and almost certainly proves that he is Rafiq. Real full name doxxed (by an air bnb lmao), same last name as the name in the old blog post.
It is kind of weird but also ironic in a sense. Marxism has a long-running tradition of its intellectuals being losers and mental weirdos in their personal lives, guess it turns out Rafiq is the modern continuation of this trend. Part of Haz's insanity is identical to Rafiq's too: Never being able to let something go, always having to respond to all criticisms even to the point of looking ridiculous.

Just goes to show: you shouldn't look up to the person or their image, but you can still appreciate their textual contribution. It seems that eccentricity and unique written insights often go hand in hand.

This also proves one of Rafiq's old points, sadly. Intelligence can be changed.


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Rafiq/Tahir/Haz or whoever probably should livestream stuff less and produce more pieces like this.


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Been reading about how the modern Right has studied and weaponized leftist thinkers like Gramsci, found it super fascinating. But it got me thinking, is there any right-wing or far-right thinker we could utilize the same way? Every major right-wing figure I've attempted to read like Rand, Guenon, Evola etc. turned to be actual straight-up hot garbage. Is there any, and I mean ANY worthwhile right-wing thinker that could be useful to study?
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Hey, you're back. Didn't the mods ban you?


What's your twitter?


You are opposed to all philosophy though, correct?


Didn't you say that you leave an e-mail attached at your next issues, so we can message you for questions and discussion?


Ban doesn't apply to /edu


Is mathematics invented, discovered or both?
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It was invented to describe reality.


I don't care


Invented but emergent from a very simple proposition that things can be counted. All mathematics depends on a set theory to describe what a number is, and from that the propositions of doing things with math like functions must follow those principles. You can of course invent a concept that didn't "naturally" exist, like a factorial or imaginary number (it's literally in the name that it isn't a "real" number and had to be invented, basically saying "you can't take the square root of a negative number, but what if you could?").

Newton and Leibniz were answering problems that already existed in mathematical proofs, and the need of a language to solve the problem of an infinitesimal. This isn't as automatic as you might think, if thinking about all the implications.

But no, there isn't a metaphysical hobgoblin "running the world on math" to determine how reality will unfold. That's always been nonsense in any serious view of reality. The first proposition, before you can even count something, is to acknowledge that such a thing exists, which is a whole other philosophical question. The set theory arises from noting that you can propose one thing, and another of the same thing, and consider them grouped together, and so on. It's a lot harder to say that multiples of some thing can't exist because reasons, than it is to accept that you can count things. It's actually an issue in some really primitive languages that don't have words for numbers, or only count so high, but it is not an insurmountable one. Native sense will tell us that there are many potential instances of some object, regardless of whether we have a numbering system or if we sense all of them in our space, however large we define it. The concept of "adding" or "multiplying" though is not written as an opcode in nature itself. It is an algorithm we carry out for our purposes in problem-solving, rather than the universe itself working out how many are in this group of things that we defined. The proposition of some stable system of matter, for example a ball comprised of so many atoms, is not contingent on a number of atoms simply comprising the ball, but some characteristics of the system as a whole. This is part of what led to a systems theory, to better describe these objects, particularly living objects.


Suppose mathematical abstract entities were real. Now suppose they vanished one day - what differences would we notice? They don’t have any causal powers, so when someone went about counting objects, they would carry out the same behavior and cognition as they did before numbers disappeared. If they took one thing, and another thing, they would come to the conclusion that they had “two things,” exactly like before.

In other words, viewing mathematics as “real” means multiplying entities beyond what is necessary, and therefore by Occam’s Razor, should be avoided.


Saying something is merely inelegant is missing the point. When we define objects casually, we're really substitute a lot of propositions about basic qualities of the thing, and we must in the end have some framework in which all of the objects of the world are related in some way, or can be related. So we have perhaps a very broad class of "physical objects", and then certain kinds of physical objects like fruits, then apples and oranges which have particular characteristics.
Saying "math is real" is nonsensical, because values couldn't exist without a relation to some fact, or some value we are interpreting as a fact in our imagination. It would be nonsensical to even think of numeracy without the assumption that objects can be grouped somehow, and we define characteristics of the group that make the objects part of it. For example, if we allocate a block of memory in a computer program and saying "we have an array of 100 Widgets", we are doing exactly that - the "group" is defined in reality by occupying an area of memory, rather than the declaration that the group simply is.

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Why is this shithole the most expensive country to live in the world? The normie answer to that would be "well because of its economy and innovation duh". What does that even mean? When I think "country that is 10 years ahead of the world", I think of Japan, South Korea, China. Not some shithole like Switzerland. And funnily enough none of the countries I've mentioned are as expensive to live in as Switzerland. And why am I calling Switzerland a shithole you may ask? Because it's almost entirely propped up by capital, Switzerland itself has little natural resources, in a hypothetical socialist world Switzerland would fall apart as there is nothing to logically justify the existence of most of its industries.


A lot of money is funneled through it through its banking system, owing to its unique and historical position within Europe. That makes the avarage income in Switzerland very high.
It doesn't have any super productivity or anything, it's no different in infrastructure and development than Austria next door.


Almost all industries are privatized, there's barely any taxation and no subsidies as a result, so unless you score a good paying job, you're fucked.
Historically, this was the reason why a lot of mercenaries came from there in the early modern age, there was just a lot of desperate fighting age lumpen men in Switzerland.
>Swiss refineries process 70% of the unrefined gold mined in the world each year. Four of the nine major players in the global gold industry conduct most of their business here in Switzerland. While the gold originates in ninety different countries, roughly half of all the gold imported for processing in Switzerland comes from Britain, the United Arab Emirates or Hong Kong – three countries that produce no gold themselves.
>Gold accounts for 63% of Britain’s exports to Switzerland, 92% of the Emirates’ and 78% of Hong Kong’s. But then too, Switzerland imports a significant amount of gold from countries that largely depend on it as a main export, such as Burkina Faso (where gold represents 72% of the country’s exports), Ghana (51%) and Mali (77%).


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Is there any Marxist historians you recommend?

>inb4 Grover Furr
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Nah lad it's that he wrote a decent chunk of his work high on cocaine


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Freud did too but there's some insight in his works, Jung's are some xenu tier bullshit takes for the most part. Especially what he wrote on Nietzsche, Jordan Peterson "knowlege" of Nietzsche comes all from Jung. That should say a lot.


There are some very good Jung books
Basically you start reading and if he's just doing cocaine word salad with no logical negations discard the book
If he sound sober there's a good chance there's some real interesting shit in there


i'll give it a try again then


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>Basically you start reading and if he's just doing cocaine word salad with no logical negations discard the book
Probably a good idea.

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What is "catalyst"?


Jacobin’s theory journal.


Anyone got any more of the more recent ones?


I come bearing PDFs of the latest issues.


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