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/edu/ - Education

Learn, learn, and learn!
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File: 1623314226240-0.pdf (781.37 KB, 67x118, 1911.02087.pdf)

File: 1623314226240-1.jpg (51.53 KB, 557x501, 66767.jpg)

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So is the universe flat or is it curved? I haven't had the change to read the whole paper, yet, but, from what I understand from the paper and what the lovely people at PBS explained to me is, apparently physicists at Cornell University observed a cluster galaxies under extreme gravitation forces causing gravitational lensing. Now this is nothing spectacular as far as what observation about the universe has lead us to, but, what is interesting is that when the amplitude of light passing over these distortions in gravity are examined more closely, apparently, they fall way out of line with currently, standard, models involving the geometry of the universe which uses triangulation of areas in the Microwave Background Image and Early Super Nova in the Early universe to summize that the universe is flat. This totally flies in the face of our current understanding of the universe and could have damning implications for modern Cosmology; The universe wont expand for ever? What is driving expansion then? Our models for Dark Energy break down. I am literally freaking the fuck out over this right now. HELP ME EDU!


Chance*** Fuck.

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Since /leftypol/ is downright autistic at times I decided to make a Debunk thread where anticommunist arguments are presented with their debunks by users.
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Someone who knows more than me about history should go through every single claim and debunk them, then make an infographic.


thats absolutly impossible


Nothing is impossible, anon.


Absolutely based thread


>one of the sources is the War Crimes Bureau of the fucking Wehrmacht

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I'm looking for editions of this journal (current, past). I've checked libgen, sci-hub, MAM, and IRC to no avail. I'm looking for the current edition in particular (https://www.scienceandsociety.com/current.pdf) but anything helps, really.


Is this an academic journal?


>Is this an academic journal?
as opposed to…?

>Appearing quarterly since 1936, Science & Society is the longest continuously published journal of Marxist scholarship, in any language, in the world.

>Science & Society is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal of Marxist scholarship. It publishes original studies in political economy and the economic analysis of contemporary societies; social and political theory; philosophy and methodology of the natural and social sciences; history, labor, ethnic and women's studies; aesthetics, literature and the arts. We especially welcome theoretical and applied research that both breaks new ground in a specific discipline, and is intelligible and useful to non-specialists.

>Science & Society does not adhere to any particular school of contemporary Marxist discussion, and does not attempt to define precise boundaries for Marxism. It does encourage respectful attention to the entire Marxist tradition, as well as to cutting-edge tools and concepts from the present-day social science literatures.


What is with zoomers today who can't even click on a link or do a web search? Does literally everything have to be spoon-fed to you in the form of a 2 minute youtube video?


They followed me back on twitter which is surprising.


bump, because I want it too.

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The other day in the China thread, I read an argument about supporting China over Vietnam despite the latter's arguably more "socialist" economy. The reason for support of China over Vietnam would be the fact that the former is most poised in breaking with the established American world order, while the latter is more inclined to appease American interests due to strained relations with the PRC.

All that's well and good, but these (nonetheless relevant) geopolitical considerations made me wonder how to study historical and current AES countries' political economies, their evolution, and how they stack up to, for example, western social democracies such as the Nordic countries in their heyday. Again, usually I'd be foaming at the mouth too seeing a comparison of Scandinavia with the late USSR, but from a purely economic standpoint it'd be nice to clear up some of the confusion.

This becomes especially interesting, once again, when bringing up modern-day China. Is it socialist? Is it just social democracy at the barrel of a gun? I feel like it's difficult nowadays to get a purely economic view of that question without involving, again, the matter of nigh obligation to critically support China due to their geopolitical position. Let's change that and drop some PDFs.
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Ladies, ladies, ladies, not in the edu thread. We share pdfs and epubs around these parts.

That being said, if you're gonna bitch about the commodity form – you might even be right – stop talking out of your ass like that and start making sense.


>But in large part commodity markets were secondary
But in the Soviet Uniom they weren't? Commodity markets were limited only to consumer goods, but they were still dominant in the Soviet Union? Got it
>But hey you haven't said anything of value, just the same nonsensical bullshit which is hilarious
Neither have you buddy. A mode of Production is being determined by surplus extraction as Marx recalled later during Volume 3. Being critical of past socialist experiments is easy, but actually overcoming the hurdles is a different thing


>We share pdfs and epubs around these parts
Guy is a newfag who wants to convince every board of his supposed superior intelligence




Commodity fetishism.

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This is not a debate thread. I encourage debate on this topic to happen in /leftypol/, as it would have anyway. This is an /edu/cational thread only.

Marxism-Leninism-Maoism, the third and highest stage of communist theory, was synthesized in 1982 by the Peruvian Communist Party (known in bourgeois sources by the epithet "Sendero Luminoso"). Here is the document they published concerning this: http://library.redspark.nu/1982_-_Maoism._On_Marxism-Leninism-Maoism
Parties and organizations that uphold MLM theory in the modern day include:
>Communist Party of Ecuador – Red Sun
>Peru People’s Movement (Reorganisation Committee)
>Communist Party of Brazil (Red Faction)
>Red Faction of the Communist Party of Chile
>Maoist Organization for the Reconstitution of the Communist Party of Columbia
>Revolutionary Nucleus for the Reconstitution of the Communist Party of Mexico
>Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist
>Committee Red Flag, FRG
>Maoist Communist Party, French State
Red Flag Collective, Finland
>Committees for the Foundation of the (Maoist) Communist Party of Austria
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File: 1620710444205.jpg (173.7 KB, 640x427, cpi maoist.jpg)



Why Maoism?

Marxism–Leninism–Maoism Is Not Just Marxism–Leninism Plus Mao

Continuity and Rupture: Philosophy in the Maoist Terrain


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Just thought I'd throw these sources in here into a slower thread so they can be on hand for when the
>muh baby boiler
brigade show up again:


>The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in Peru is usually cited as an example of how capture–recapture methods can help improve our understanding of mass violence from incomplete observed data. Using 25,000 documented death records, the TRC estimated a total of 69,000 killings, and that the Shining Path was the main perpetrator, in contrast with the raw data where the Peruvian State appears to be responsible for the most killings. One feature not often noticed is that the TRC applied an unusual indirect procedure, combining data on different perpetrators and lumping together missing perpetrator data in one group. I show that direct estimations with strict stratification by perpetrator and accounting for missing data do not support the results of the TRC’s indirect approach. I estimate a total of 48,000 killings, substantially lower than the TRC estimate, and the Peruvian State accounts for a significantly larger share than the Shining Path. Rather than an example of correcting biases in the observed data through capture–recapture methods, the TRC actually introduced further distortion.


>Even after President Alejandro Toledo increased the number of commissioners to twelve from seven (adding Ames, Arias, Lay, Antúndez, Morote, and the observer Bambarén), the commissioners still reflected elite sectors of Peru least affected by the violence. All were residents of Lima, all were urban dwellers, only one spoke Quechua, only one understood it, and none self-identified as Indigenous or campesino. As Commissioner Carlos Iván Degregori later commented, “even the composition of the CVR reflected the gaps in the country” that underlay the political violence

>It is crucial to remember that survivors of the violence made decisions about what they would and w
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Does anyone have a PDF/epub of the 1995 document 'Long Live Marxism-Leninism-Maoism'?


bumping for this >>5950


File: 1622825444350-0.pdf (60.38 KB, 212x300, Long Live Marxism-Leninism….pdf)

File: 1622825444350-1.epub (10.63 KB, Long Live Marxism-Leninis….epub)

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Is mathematics invented, discovered or both?
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>If you are a materialist, then math is absolutely discovered. It is insane to think that aliens would have a math system where 2+2 is not 4.

Some uyghas ain't aware if non-well ordered sets…


File: 1622694781784.png (107.85 KB, 1706x728, principia.png)

>362 pages to prove 1+1=2


>principia matematica
Is that the book that gives your virginity back


Mathematical Platonism was refuted.
Post rem structuralism is probably correct.


Can you explain to us uneducated what this means?

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Can anyone recommend me literature on strategies in war? From an officers perspective. Preferably something broad. I don‘t have any knowledge on the subject matter so something that is introductory material would be great as well, but it doesn‘t have to be.
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>Is a tactic bad because it is well known?
No, definitely not. It should be assumed the enemy can read the same books you can.
>Are the lessons still worth learning?
I think they are. It's been a long time since I read it but there are ideas there like:
>Appear weak when you are strong, appear strong when you are weak.
So basically it's about managing information. Now isn't that very timely?


It is.
I'm going to read it now

I have one question about the enemies with the same knowledge and tactics
Who comes out on top? Would it be just a flip coin's chance of either one's victory?

The one with the most discipline to the old ways wins or the one who finds a way to deviate and create a new path through the blueprint wins


>I have one question about the enemies with the same knowledge and tactics
>Who comes out on top? Would it be just a flip coin's chance of either one's victory?

war could be seen as a game of imperfect information. Both sides are seeking for more information to strategize and exploit around.
Sometimes the information is bad, and you really can't account for that.

Even if a general knew whole armies could fit into a swamp, would he really put forward resources to scout it?


>Who comes out on top?
The one with the superior logistics and resources.

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How do you decide what to read?

I am so hyper panicked with the idea that there are so many books to read just about leftism and history and with so many perspectives

It overstimulates me and I get stunlocked

What is your procedure and methods to reading in a uniformed structure?
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Alright I have downloaded the pdf and will read it


If I want a Book I buy it and read it over a stretch of time. Since I'm not rich I can only do this a handfull of times a year, so yeah that's how it works with me. I buy them in paperform because I want to build a small library


I hope you build a nice library anon.


Thanks Anon, appreciate it

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Let's have a thread about chemistry. I can't be the only amateur chemist on here. To please the mods, everything in here is purely academic. Check local laws before you embark on your projects. And before you do anything, make sure you have appropriate safety equipment. Think about the worst thing that could happen to your reaction, because chances are it will. Don't be stupid.

https://www.sciencemadness.org/ The go-to site for amateur chemists
Wiki: http://www.sciencemadness.org/smwiki/index.php/Main_Page
Forums, require email registration: https://www.sciencemadness.org/whisper/

Archive.org has plenty of old chemistry textbooks. The most useful ones for me are those meant to teach youngsters from the early 1900's.

NurdRage, the OG channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/NurdRage
NileRed, the internet's premier piss chemist: https://www.youtube.com/user/TheRedNile
NileBlue, secondary channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1D3yD4wlPMico0dss264XA
Explosions&Fire, energetic materials: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCVovvq34gd0ps5cVYNZrc7A
Extractions&Ire, secondary channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvFApMFo_AafXbHRyEJefjA
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high temperature electrochemistry, but that's not very exciting for regular peeps. so, the usual: R-candy, smoke bombs and thermite

I have plans to "upgrade" some NaNO3 to KNO3 via metathesis with KCl. after that I might get into HNO3 synthesis by electrolysing bog water


>mfw caught my chemistry-hobbiest friend collecting rust in a bucket
He insisted it wasn't for thermite, but come on.


>I swear, it's for catalysing a fischer-tropsch reaction


File: 1622715455526-0.jpg (48.35 KB, 800x610, AcOH.jpg)

File: 1622715455526-1.png (3.5 KB, 500x400, SLE_Acetic_acid_Water_001.png)

I've been experimenting with ways of concentrating acetic acid. pic related is 4 ml ~66% AcOH by weight based on it being liquid at -20°C. freeze distillation worked best for this, but the yield isn't great: 4%

I tried simple distillation too, and despite AcOH and H2O not forming any azeotrope I didn't see much improvement over the 24% white vinegar I started with. it also formed copper acetate in my condenser, which I should have thought about tbh

next step is trying to drive off the water by mixing in IPA and distilling off the IPA+water mix (and resulting isopropyl acetate). molecular sieves would probably work better, but I don' have any


I forgot my freeze distillation method:

1) cool your white vinegar down enough to where it becomes a slurry and filter it until you get maybe 1/3 of the initial volume
2) put the mixture in a jar and stand it upright in a freezer
3) once the mixture has frozen, tip the jar over and let it sit in the freezer like that for a day
4) a small pool of liquid should have formed, separate from the frozen fraction. pour that off into a separate container

the concentration of the final fraction depends on the temperature in the freezer. the temperature must be above -26.7°C for this to work.

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 No.2940[Reply][Last 50 Posts]

Hello comrades. I propose a general thread in an attempt to get the /edu/ ball rolling again. Everytime you visit /edu/, post in this thread. Tell us about what you're thinking about, what you're reading, an interesting thing you have learned today, anything! Just be sure to pop in and say hi.
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File: 1622140376148.png (391.01 KB, 1256x868, harder daddy.png)

planning to read hegel after entry exams to uni


Just got through "How We Decide" by Jonah Lehrer (2009). It's one of those books about experiments revealing human biases like anchor values etc. (see also: Amos Tversky, Philipp Tetlock) and he tells some stories about how people decided in life-or-death situations. He makes you second-guess your urges. He also mixes in some "explanations" about what part of the brain apparently does what (based on data from injuries and brain-scan activity patterns). But what am I supposed to do with that information? I can't pull parts out and back in depending on the situation. Still, decent book overall. The writing is easy to follow and engaging. He's like a less hacky version of Malcom Gladwell.


Finished "How I Learn Languages" by Kató Lomb, Hungarian polyglot and professional translator sharing anecdotes from her life and tips. She says that you absolutely must dedicate at the very least 10 hours a week to the language you wanna learn. Normie language courses are good but they take forever, so her idea is you should just lie about your skill level and do a ton of extra learning in addition to the course. Rather unusual advice by her is to start reading books in the target language fairly early on. Just annotate the shit out of what you read… I don't know what to think about that.


I've read this. I remember the anecdotes being fun but the actual advice wasn't anything new. Well, it's an older book so I can't blame her.


Finished "Sugar" by James Walvin (2018). Walvin is a historian and his big thing is slavery. Sugar played a huge role in that, not only because of the slaves directly involved in the sugar sector, but also by boosting demand for chocolate and coffee. The book also covers the 20th century and the current obesity crisis. It's an important topic and I'm sure the author did thorough research, but I found it tedious to read. He often talks through numbers and more numbers showing development of trade patterns and what have you, when he could and should have just used some charts instead.

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