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File: 1608527925753.png (330.54 KB, 500x340, f737bcf2490f54fdb7b740bb6e….png)

 No.69[Reply]

Please guy
You can recommended book of history of africa ? in pdf format of course
Pls… in spanish much better
1 post omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.71

>>69
There is a nice book on the country of Burkina Faso (from independence to after the 2014 revolt) called «Burkina Faso: A History of Power, Protest and Revolution» by Ernest Harsch, really good read.
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 No.3672

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 No.3680

File: 1608528322986.pdf (4.07 MB, John Iliffe - África_ Hist….pdf)

"Libgen" es la mejor página para conseguir libros digitales y gratuitos. Algunos archivos podrían no subirse aquí por estar muy pesados, busca allí por tu cuenta.
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 No.3698

>>3680
Basado
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 No.3709

Para una historia semi-biografica de Sankara especificamente, el libro de Ludo Martens es muy bien y creo que hay una traducción en castellano.


File: 1608528317812.jpg (57.49 KB, 644x858, money ritualist.jpg)

 No.3626[Reply]

I'm a celibate man(thus have high brain power)and i want to find the ultimate truth to life.
I have limited time and two options:
>stuyding esotericism,magick,mystic treatises and meditation techniques,the vedas,medieval books etc

OR

>cosmology,neurology,biology,history of life on earth,maths,etc


Which should I devote my time to?
13 posts and 1 image reply omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.3660

>>3626
study logic and scientific critique, then post-critical science shit, learn meditation but as a tool to make your mind sharper thats all, it will give you no knowledge (Except about … meditation), and then get into whatever the fuck u want, u should be insulated from wasting too much time on obvious bullshit if u start out by learning how to think and learn properly.
for "truth of life" tho, read philosophy ffs, all the esoteric stuff is only really appealing to people with inflated egos because you can read whatever you want into it and feel like a genius and like ur learning hidden knowledge. Philosophy (good philosophy…) does the same shit that (honest) mystics and religious figures tried to do, but in more plain language for the modern world
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 No.3666

>>3658
Start with the Africans.
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 No.3674

Unironically (whether or not that's in the spirit of this thread) every human should know a lot about a little and a little about a lot. So pick what you want to be an expert in, and read/discuss/investigate deeply in that, but also acquaint yourself with what we've learned more broadly and bring a bunch of different perspectives to bear on what you know best.
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 No.3696

Why not both?
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 No.3707

>>3626
One gets you cred on the most mid-wit level boards on 4chan while the other can net you a job, and an actual understanding, albeit still probably reductionist, understanding of the world.


File: 1608527954524-0.png (47.6 KB, 692x380, Screen Shot 2020-02-29 at ….png)

File: 1608527954524-1.pdf (190.3 KB, cockshottalthusser.pdf)

File: 1608527954524-2.pdf (7.68 MB, howtheworldworkspaulcocksh….pdf)

 No.292[Reply]

What does /roulette/ think of the markovian view of marxist/althusserian historical materialism presented by the immortal scientist in his review of althusser's philosopher of the encounter, as well as in his book "how the world works".
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 No.293

I thought that picture was a joke? Please don't tell me there are people who truly believe such nonsense.
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 No.294

>>293
read the first pdf attached
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 No.3681

in order to make the state machine materialist, it would need to have a copy of that diagram for all combinations of relevant material conditions (plus connecting arrows). While it is technically correct, I don't think it is particularly useful.
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 No.3699

>>3681
Obviously this is insufficient as a COMPLETE model, but it's clearly not trying to be. It's expressing the idea that conditions potentially ripe for capitalism more frequently arise than actually do transition to it, which seems largely accurate to me - though of course (1) you could no doubt as mentioned get greater predictive accuracy by adding additional variables and (2) this leaves unexplained what constitutes the different state and why transitions between them should occur. It's not like Marxists have neglected these questions, though, so I think it's worth seeing if FSM-type models can produce anything useful if you noodle around with them.
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 No.3700

>>3699
They can't, this is some horoscope level bullshit.


File: 1608528062908.jpg (248.91 KB, 934x900, stalin3.jpg)

 No.1227[Reply]

Do you prefer physical or digital books /edu/?
27 posts and 3 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.1845

>>1227
Physical but cause Coronalol, digital so I can use Sci-hub
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 No.1846

>>1227
Digital

Though if the apocalypse happens I might regret that
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 No.3366

>>1227
physical always.
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 No.3368

I can't read online. I print out PDFs sometimes though instead of buying.
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 No.3670

Either digital copies or hardcover physical books.

Paperbacks are pure degeneracy and counter-revolutionairy ;)


File: 1608528320218.jpg (827.32 KB, 2000x1336, Kafta-sheraro-park-slider.jpg)

 No.3656[Reply]

Did the ancient/medieval Ethiopians domesticate the African elephant? In many historical records, the Abyssinians/Aksumites are mentioned to use elephants for military purposes, but were these African elephants or Asian elephants? In modern-day Ethiopia, or in fact anywhere for that matter, there is no sign of domestication of the African elephant. However, African elephants have been extensively used in ancient times for military purposes, for example by the Carthaginians.
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 No.3659

thank you for your contribution to this board my friend
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 No.3661

>>3656
phroo :DD
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 No.3662

>>3656
Those war elephants were probably from a now extinct western subspecies of Asian elephant, or northern subspecies of African forest elephant.
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 No.3663

Are elephants comrades?
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 No.3664

>>3663
Of course.
We shall help them develop their brains and social minds until they are our equals.
Like dolphins
UPHOLD POSADAS


File: 1608528192779.png (2.82 MB, 1920x1080, 1584479929023-1.png)

 No.2512[Reply]

This thread is for large-scale improvements or even small tweaks in society that are impossible to implement under capitalism. Inspiration for this thread came after reading this
https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/xgqkyw/copper-destroys-viruses-and-bacteria-why-isnt-it-everywhere
>Today, we have insight into why a person handling copper day in and day out would have protection from a bacterial threat: Copper is antimicrobial. It kills bacteria and viruses, sometimes within minutes. In the 19th century, exposure to copper would have been an early version of constantly sanitizing one's hands.
>A study from 2015 found that a different coronavirus, human coronavirus 229E, which causes respiratory tract infections, could still infect a human lung cell after five days of being on materials like teflon, ceramic, glass, silicone rubber, and stainless steel. But on copper alloys, the coronavirus was “rapidly inactivated.”
>So given how well it could work, for hospital infections and for health more generally, why isn’t copper everywhere? Why isn’t every door knob, every subway rail, every ICU room, made of copper? Why can we easily buy stainless steel water bottles, but not copper? Where are the copper iPhone cases?
>There might also be a perception that copper is too expensive, Schmidt said, despite the fact that the numbers indicate it would ultimately save money. One of Keevil and Schmidt's studies from 2015 did the math: The cost of treating an HAI ranges from $28,400 to $33,800 per patient. Installing copper on 10 percent of surfaces cost $52,000 and prevented 14 infections over the course of the 338-day study. If you take the lower end of the HAI treatment cost ($28,400), then those 14 prevented infections saved a total of $397,600, or $1,176 a day.
So while the material and reason to use copper for most things are there. The kind of short-term market logic that makes it impossible to do anything about climate change also prevents this move from being made.
4 posts omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.3604

https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1951/economic-problems/ch13.htm
> 3. It is necessary, in the third place, to ensure such a cultural advancement of society as will secure for all members of society the all-round development of their physical and mental abilities, so that the members of society may be in a position to receive an education sufficient to enable them to be active agents of social development, and in a position freely to choose their occupations and not be tied all their lives, owing to the existing division of labour, to some one occupation.

>What is required for this?


>It would be wrong to think that such a substantial advance in the cultural standard of the members of society can be brought about without substantial changes in the present status of labour. For this, it is necessary, first of all, to shorten the working day at least to six, and subsequently to five hours. This is needed in order that the members of society might have the necessary free time to receive an all-round education. It is necessary, further, to introduce universal compulsory polytechnical education, which is requiredin order that the members of society might be able freely to choose their occupations and not be tied to some one occupation all their lives. It is likewise necessary that housing conditions should be radically improved, and that real wages of workers and employees should be at least doubled, if not more, both by means of direct increases of wages and salaries, and, more especially, by further systematic reductions of prices for consumer goods.


>These are the basic conditions required to pave the way for the transition to communism.


>Only after all these preliminary conditions are satisfied in their entirety may it be hoped that work will be converted in the eyes of the members of society from a nuisance into "life's prime want" (Marx), (8) that "labour will become a pleasure instead of being a burden" (Engels), (9) and that social property will be regarded by all members of society as the sacred and inviolable basis of the existence of society.


>Only after all these preliminary condi
Post too long. Click here to view the full text.
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 No.3614

Doesn't copper oxidize, effectively having to be replaced every 10-20 years because it's surface wouldn't inactivate viruses anymore?
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 No.3616

>>3614
i wonder if you could just sand/scruff the surface??
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 No.3618

>>3614
No, read the piece
>Another reason copper may have been passed over for steel, plastic, or glass is that it can easily tarnish and requires a lot of cleaning to remain shiny. “But copper is antimicrobial regardless of how grody it looks, if it turns green on you, it still has the ability to kill bacteria and viruses and fungi,” he said.
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 No.3657

Whales are one of the best ways to sustainably store carbon away from the environment because they eat a lot and then sink to the bottom of the ocean.

Why are whales going extinct? Over-fishing, pollution, lots of reasons

>Now we turn to the economic side of the solution. Protecting whales has a cost. Mitigating the many threats to whales involves compensating those causing the threats, a group that includes countries, businesses, and individuals. Ensuring that this approach is practical involves determining whales’ monetary value.

https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2019/12/natures-solution-to-climate-change-chami.htm


File: 1608528072040.jpg (195.47 KB, 566x504, Louis_I_of_Naples_-_Order_….jpg)

 No.1299[Reply]

any good books on the medieval period?
yes i have already read the peseant war in germany, no i did not understood what the fuck it was saying
4 posts and 3 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.3590

>>1299
John Hatcher and Mark Bailey Modelling the Middle Ages

The Brenner Debate (Specifically 'Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe')

Guy Bois, The Crisis of Feudalism : Economy and Society in Eastern Normandy C1300-1550

Robert Bartlett, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonisation and Cultural Change: 950-1350 (Personal fave, the least dry out of all the texts and it gives you a broad picture for you to decide what your interested in)

As posted by previous anon, 'The Three Orders' is a must imo. If you have a specific area your interested in that would help as there's a lot going on at the same time, and it becomes tricky to create general histories due to the variety of shit that was going on across europe. Especially since a lot of histories just ignore eastern europe.
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 No.3593

Jacques Le Goff
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 No.3639

From a more rightist colleague I've heard John Huizinga's "Autumn of the Middle Ages" as THE book I should read. (His 'Homo Ludens' also sounds quite interesting)
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 No.3647

Why does a full suit of High Middle Ages chainmail, like with coif, hauberk, mufflers, cuisse, etc. look so fucking good?
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 No.3665

File: 1608528320861.jpg (76.59 KB, 768x351, external-content.duckduckg….jpg)

A bit specialist, but there are some reading recommendations in this academic syllabus for anyone interested in medieval philosophy and theology:
https://itself.blog/2020/10/08/angels-and-demons-syllabus/#more-27219


File: 1608528312705.png (2.04 MB, 1679x2548, yamnaya pca raddle.png)

 No.3584[Reply]

date: 9-4kya

blue = european
orange = levant MENA
green = iran MENA

9kya, levants colonize europe and mix with european foragers. The mixing ultimately ends up being on somewhat even terms.

5kya, a mixed race group (half euro half iran) colonizes europe very hard, killing off both euro/levant males and essentially raping their women. These "aryans" introduce the indoeuropean languages into europe.

Every european today has these three ancestries in their genome. Some europeans, like italians and greeks, are more Middle Eastern than European.

The average Brit is 60% european, 40% MENA (30% levant and 10% iran)

In addition, Finns and Russians have about 10% Asian ancestry from Uralics.
5 posts and 1 image reply omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.3609

>>3606
>lol they have shit science
>lol see, look at these different nations
>huh huh nations means race cus reasons
>Personally, I am just kinda disgusted by the entire European ancestry
>im a good guy huh huh
>by the way white isnt real after all of my reasons
wew i love you guys, its like metoker is back already hahahaha
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 No.3620

>>3608
>ya so is everyone else retard
Not really, at least not in the same scale.

In a strict sense, yes everyone (and everything) is mixed race.

In a more liberal sense, only Eurasians were mixed race until recently. Africans, Americans, and Oceanians were all genetically pretty pure.

And even within Eurasia, Europeans are more mixed than Indians (maybe excepting Pakistanis) or any of the Asian races.

>you know that ethnicity has existed for thousands of years before anyone knew anything about this bullshit?

cope, these genes have existed for millions of years before humans even learned how to walk upright. We only started knowing about them 50 years ago, doesn't make them only 50 years old.
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 No.3621

>>3609
He's right though, italians are considered white now. Irish/Polish is a spook because they are nordeuro. But italians look different, esp the southern ones that came to the US.

Next step is Mestizo Latinos start getting the white treatment

>nation means race

yeah, it's arbitrary and retarded just like your system. I see no problem here.

scientifically, Europe is a Middle Eastern rapebaby reservoir. "White" is not a race, it's an appearance. White people are mixed race.
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 No.3622

File: 1608528317339.jpg (547.19 KB, 1560x1720, yamnaya.jpg)

Fun fact, the purest Europeans were quite dark skinned (think Native North American, if not darker)

Light skin was introduced via Middle Eastern farmer/pastoralist migrants.

These MENAs mixed with the local population, and as they adapted to a more lactovegetarian diet, they developed even lighter skin than the original MENAs, due to the dark climate.

The original pure Europeans were also exclusively light-eyed, and actually all genetically European groups were 100% light eyed 10kya. Brown eyes are a Middle Eastern feature.
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 No.3623

>>3622
explains why my Iranian friends are pastier than most americans


File: 1608528244725.jpg (495.63 KB, 1364x1600, David-Hume-oil-canvas-Alla….jpg)

 No.2975[Reply]

Hume established criteria for good taste. However, criteria for good taste says nothing about criteria for good art. So what then is the criteria for good art, the seeming elephant in the room left unaddressed in the realm of aesthetics? How can you call something good art if you cannot even define what is good art?
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 No.2976

This is just my initial thoughts, but the way I see it there are 2 dimensions of which to asses art. The rational, and the irrational (I may come up with better terms later), the rational is the analyzing of artistic skills. On one side of the spectrum, a virtuosic musician who's music is theoretically genius but doesn't sound 'good', i.e. unless you are versed in the musical medium it is impossible for you to 'understand' how it is impressive.
The other, irrational, is how it makes you feel. I enjoy some abstract paintings because they make me feel a certain way, regardless of whether or not 'my 4 year old could have done that', it provokes a certain emotion in me, that is usually tied to memories and such. An extreme version of this is a pop song that is very catchy and fun, even if you hate what it stands for and can see it is only 4 very basic chords.
So there is no such thing as good art, but I think art can enter a certain goldilocks zone where it combines rational and irrational properties in an artistic way. I think a prime example of this would be Van Gogh, probably the most loved painter in the western world. The marriage of 'aesthetic' beauty with artistic skill.
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 No.3615

File: 1608528316733-0.jpg (16.75 KB, 389x255, Hirst-Shark.jpg)

File: 1608528316733-1.jpg (196.5 KB, 724x1023, 4768537374_5474fbc949_b.jpg)

Don't know, anon.
But Technical skill comes into it, as this video with Tracey Emin suggests. (She's talking about the fine arts in it; even though she became famous for the unmade bed exhibit, she seems to suggest that a grounding in the fine arts first is necessary to consider yourself an artist. .)
https://youtu.be/7utbB8A_Rt4
I don't really agree with that myself. The unmade bed's status as art (or not) shouldnt be affected by unrelated artistic training.

The radical feminist Helen Lewis suggests good art is art in which the medium is the message :
&ltIf there is anything I have learned from the writer and director Robert Icke, it’s that the medium is the message. A play about identity should play with identity. A play about the truth should question whether what we are seeing is the truth. A play about justice should ask us to judge.
&ltForm and content are two sides of the same coin
https://helenlewis.substack.com/?utm_campaign=pub&utm_medium=web&utm_source=copy

The effect on the viewer of art consumer is probably the most important thing. Art should probably take you out of yourself, expand your horizons in some way, and do this through an aesthetic medium .
But there should be some lasting impression on you of something profounder than ordinary life, otherwise it's just a means to kill time, entertainment.
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 No.3617

i think before thinking about what is good art you've gotta decide what 'art' even is to you, whats excluded from that category and what is fundamental to it, etc.
And whether or not you want to just define the word or define the idea…
Colloquailly art refers to shit like paintings and statues that are meant to be looked at, almost in contrast to their surrounding environments which are not meant to be looked at? And so we get a urinal or a bed can be art if it's in a setting where you look at things and try to find their beauty or meaning. But is a house art? Does that depend on the intention of the architect, or what?
So anyways im kind of bored of that kind of art honestly. There's so much more beauty and inspiration in different mediums other than the small, visual, single-person projects that characterize what i think is usually called art. A great landscape, a great event, a beautiful life, a village, etc. But these arent all created with intent, or with the intent of inspiring, and they are often able to be interacted with. I'd so much prefer a world of beauty embodied in our surroundings and lives and culture than something to hang on the wall (or god forbid only see on a screen while trolling for "art" on some website) or put in the garden. So fuck art as dualism, you end up with an ugly world and pretty little trivialities.

That said, what is good art? who knows, why does it even need to be formulated? I think its just something that satisfies our tastes, like how good food is what satisfies your tastes. It's totally subjective and can change, like when you crave a piece of good fish and you eat it and its great, it was great food, but later you might eat it and its just acceptable, not great and not bad. And then some things obviously are repulsive. Is there actually a better way of defining how something meant to please the senses is good other than how well it pleases them? There's technical skill, but if the skill doesnt translate to how pleasing the product is, then i think its not relevant, and at best it might just be a sort of pointless middle-man criteria.
But also what is pleasing isnt always warm of comforting, a HUGE axis for something seeming aesthetical and pleasing i think is that it does its purpose well, or embodies its own qualities in some inspiring way. I think of like the almost universal attraction to animals in their wild habitat. Part of it is maybe this fetishistic attitude that sees themPost too long. Click here to view the full text.


File: 1608528316334.jpg (2.46 MB, 4032x3024, Nickelocen_an_einem_Kühlfi….jpg)

 No.3611[Reply]

Can someone get me this? I'm getting copyright blocked and cant find it anywhere.

Bellu, E. "The Dialectical Significance of Chemistry in the Works of Fr. Engels." Revue roumaine des sciences sociales: serie de philosophie et logique 17 (1973): 163-169.

Bellu, E. The Dialectical Significance of Chemistry in the Work of Friedrich Engels. Romanian Journal of Social Sciences Philosophy and Logic Series, Volume 17, 1973, 163-169.

https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000494736
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 No.3612

File: 1608528316463.pdf (2.18 MB, imyanitov2015.pdf)

Looks ridiculously hard to find, the closest library I could find that collected that journal was several thousand kilometers from me and stopped their subscription to that journal a decade before that paper

If you specifically need that paper you're probably going to have to travel to your closest major library and hassle the librarians there to get a cross institutional copy

.pdf attached might be an acceptable substitute for your purposes maybe?
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 No.3613

File: 1608528316543.png (53.35 KB, 1456x689, hw4r54h.png)

>>3612
Thanks for trying. I already read that one actually, and the two others google scholar has that also cite Bellu E. They are tangentially related, that one is mostly about the authors interest in synergetics, but I'm more interested in Dialectics and Chemistry alone specifically.

I can search hathitrust articles with a guest account and it throws back a result so I think theres a digital copy there, and its searchable in english.


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