I know this is late but OP is actually talking about quantum chromodynamicshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_chromodynamicshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_charge
I'm not a physicist and i don't know shit about quantum mechanics but here's how i understand it:
The color charge is just like electrical charge in the sense that it causes objects to attract or repel
The electrical charge can have 2 types which is either positive or negative and its rules are very simple: opposite charges attract and like charges repel
The color charge can have 6 different types instead of the just 2 types (positive and negative) of electrical charge which is why is it's so damn complicated.
The reason why it's called color charge is simply an analogy to how these charges combine in a similar way to colors(see below) and has nothing to do with the actual color of the particles, remember that what we call a 'color charge' is just some property which causes particles to feel a force, because there are 6 types of color charge the rules for whether this force is an attractive or a repelling force is much more complicated.
The possible types of color charges are: Red, Green, Blue, Anti-red, Anti-green, Anti-blue
Note that Anti-red, Anti-green, Anti-blue are also called Cyan, Purple and Yellow respectively, see pic 1 and 2.
Now what are the rules for color charges? which charges attract which and which repel which?
When you combine a positively charged particle(such as a proton) with a negatively charged particle(such as an electron) you get a neutral structure(such as a hydrogen atom), effectively the positive and negative charges cancel each other, However the color charge doesn't work like that, when two color charges mix they give rise to a different color charge which is why they're compared to how color mix, here's how some of the different charges mix:Post too long. Click here to view the full text.