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/edu/ - Education

'The weapon of criticism cannot, of course, replace criticism of the weapon, material force must be overthrown by material force; but theory also becomes a material force as soon as it has gripped the masses.' - Karl Marx
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Wanted to make a theology general to discuss whatever questions or topics about religion people here may have. I thought about posting this in /siberia/ but I rather have a higher quality discussion tbh, and since /edu/ has much less traffic I think a thread about theology and religion in general would work better than a specific topic about particular denominations and such. So to start, something I had been wondering for a while, in buddhist theology when you die you reincarnate and depending on your karma you'll either be reborn into a human or an animal. So if you are reborn into an animal, after this life what would determine what you reincarnate into? Does buddhism have a way to judge animals? Do you reincarnate into a human by default after living as an animal and just keep the cycle going until you achieve enlightenment? If anyone knows I'd really appreciate it.
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that Yijie Tang book is really good, thanks for that

(it goes too soft on pomo tho)


Which has more adherents, traditionalist catholicism or liberation theology? Does it differ in Europe vs LatAm? Why/how?


Looking for good books on atheism


What's some good resources for getting into witchcraft, particularly Wicca, proper? Like I understand the basics sort of, but I'd like to develop an understanding of it that isn't just scrapped together from youtube videos.


Alawites are "ghulat", ie extermists, meaning they worship ali as an aspect of god, making them technically heretical to all mainstream forms of shia islam.


Recommend me general book about what lead to russia/ukraine war and palestine/israel war, some totally objective description from the beginning to now, so i understand whats going on now. I bought Paul Johnson book "Modern Times" (i know he is rabid anticommunist, didnt knew that when i bought it), its funny how hateful he is, but reading his chapter on Palestine/Israel even he mentioned that jewish terrorist groups were actually responsible for the first acts. I dont want specifcally "communist historian" books either. Objectively state of the facts, without unneccessary commentary would be fine for me - but i would like book like "20th century modern history" like Johnson wrote - so from bird view eye, entire 20th century, doing some broad analysis idk, just more objective.Pic unrelated i dont know what to post rn


i said i dont want it but feel free to recommend "20th century history" from marxist perspective if yoyu know that kind of book


Seems like there are a few people on leftypol interested in this subject so I thought I'd create a thread dedicated to discussing the Wydna collective and Pseudodoxology podcast
>What is Wydna?
Wydna is a research collective dedicated to reading history through a unique lens. Taking inspiration from Marxism and Accelerationism, Kantbot and other members of the collective dedicate themselves to uncovering the conspiracies, traditions and ideologies that circle the elites of the British and American Empires. Through their podcast, they discuss secret societies, scandals, and factions of the deep state in a fashion considered unconventional to our current interpretation of history.
>That sounds great, where can I learn more?
Their episodes are paywalled, so that's why I'm making this thread. I will be uploading some of their more noteworthy episodes on request here for those who aren't interested in paying the 5$ a month on patreon.
You can listen to their most popular episodes for free on Spotify https://open.spotify.com/show/45p4IYDT96zuulXl1oH5wW?si=4uuH0B85RjWbbqdEmnwQkw
And I will be filling this thread with links to episodes I consider noteworthy.
I'll start by uploading their episode on the history of political economy, which is 7 hours, so I'll be breaking the audio up into several parts. This post, OP, contains the first 3.
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> factions of the deep state
thats cool that theres a whole podcast speculating this, I asked a similar question on /USA/pol and we p much all agreed that yankees and cowboys was cool but outdated and we really don't know.


One of the main things that Pseudcast talked about in this area had to do with the
development of a particular segment of the OSS that had been stationed in China, OSS Detachment 101. That group grew and morphed into an important faction in the early CIA where they acted on a lot of connections with the "China Lobby" – basically, the group of rich interests interested in returning Chiang Kai-shek to power. Nixon eventually ran afoul of this group.

The other important faction that Pseudcast talks about develops out of the private surveillance networks facilitated by firms including Sullivan & Cromwell, etc. There were a lot of early intelligence networks run by lawyers, bankers, and in one case some engineers. The basic concept here was that it was important for these to coordinate the mega-projects of the industrial era, like building the Suez Canal. These people were the original Non-Official Cover intel agents, though that practice continues to the present day.
Kantbot doesn't explicitly make this case, but the "China Lobby" types can be seen most directly exercising influence in the postwar era. Nixon turns on them and their fingerprints can be seen on things like the Chennault Affair and Watergate. It seems like the "last hurrah" for this group was Iran-Contra, although I'm still hazy on what KB's read on that was.
My memory is hazy, but I think the thing that they say mainly about Iran-Contra is that Peter Dale Scott theory – that wherever you see a circuit of oil and guns, you'll also find drugs running along the same lines. So Kantbot gets really wrapped up in demonstrating that there were these deep ties between Latin American death squads, their training camps in the US, and the currents of the drug trade that go into places like Arkansas. He focuses a lot on the elicit transit networks, but I can't really remember how this relates to Iran other than the way that it parallels tankers.
By the 80s, KB thinks that the vibe around the CIA changes to a much more business-y, technocratic atmosphere.So the Sullivan & Cromwell types win.


Maybe a simpler way to talk about it is that Kantbot thinks that the deep state works by structuring information.

In spycraft, there's a lot of good reason to create information silos – divide up a complex task into discrete parts and run each thing in parallel so that no one else has all the information to put together the entire operation. This is a lot of thinking, so Kantbot tends to believe that the intel services will use similar "playbooks" or patterns across multiple operations. And since a whole plan gets modularized, it also makes sense for the planners to build in things like redundancies. So one of the things that Kantbot gets caught up on are all of these "doubles" that happen around various plots. He sees lots of assets that get spun up and spun down circulating around the more famous plots, and he sees this as evidence that the planners / plotters were working with redundancies and failsafes.

The flip side of this is that Kantbot doesn't think that these structures of information can be reconstructed directly from evidence, because all of that evidence is broken up, but that there have to be some pretty heavy heuristic choices involved. In other words, you have to use something like "The Secret Team" as a cipher for reading and interpreting complex events. This is a huge move on Kantbot's part, because it means that he's basically working deductively – he has his models, and then he searches out evidence to fit his models. And he spends a lot of time looking at and thinking about the things that people use as/for models, such as the architecture of PDFs.


obv chatgpt posts

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I remember that Hakim at a certain point, in a video of his, cited a paper about production efficency, according to which socialist states had about the same efficency (if not slightly more) as capitalist ones in transforming raw materials into finished products.
Does anyone know the name of such paper or has a link?


Maybe find the video first?


I pray for Joey, may he find happiness in serving the Lord 🙏

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Here is an idea I had when reading Georges Politzer's "The Elementary Principles of Philosophy". He describes his approach to dialectical analysis. If anyone here wants an exercise in dialectical analysis give it a shot by selecting whatever piece of media you find to be relevant and analyze it based on his approach.

<6. A method of dialectical analysis

<In order to apply the dialectical method properly, one must know many things. If you do not know your subject, it must be studied carefully, otherwise, your judgment will amount to only a caricature of the truth. In order to make an analysis of a literary work, a book or story, we are going to indicate a method which may be applied to other subjects as well.

<a) You must first pay attention to the content of the book or story you wish to analyze. Examine it independently of any social question, for not everything is derived from class struggle or economic conditions. There are literary influences which we must take into consideration. Try to see to which “literary school” the work belongs. Take into account the internal development of ideologies. Practically speaking, it would be good

to make a summary of the subject under analysis and to note down anything you found remarkable.

<b) Next observe the social types the heroes of the intrigue belong to. Look for the class to which they belong. Examine the action of the characters and see if what takes place in the novel can be linked in some way to a

social viewpoint. If this is not possible, if it cannot reasonably be done, it is better to abandon the analysis rather than invent. You must never invent an explanation.

<c) After you have discovered what class or classes are involved, you must determine the economic foundation, i.e., the means of production and the way of producing at the moment when the action of the novel takes

place. If, for example, the action is contemporary, the economic system is capitalism. At present we see numerous stories and novels which criticize and fight capitalism. But there are two ways to fight capitalism:
<1. As a revolutionary seeking to go forward.
Post too long. Click here to view the full text.



The coolness of dialectics is in the examination of reality, it adds to/breaks with immanent critique by the addition of concretization, excursions from the object of study to its negation in connected objects. This text, I'll analyze it by pointing out that you say "in order to apply the dialectical method properly, one must know many things" but there isn't any method for knowing what is necessary about a subject (i.e. any account of following the natural points of excursion in a thing to its context and internal parts), and then you say to look for class - unless class fails to "reasonably" be applied (again introducing the subjectivity of the analyst rather than letting the object of study speak for itself, which is the essence of dialectical study) - and then after that economics, and the goal is to find ideology. Well great, we have 3 categories of importance that should be looked for in everything. This is a totally subjective critique, its a "lens" that functions in the typical way of literary critique, a pre-set heuristic. What's missing ultimately is why we would do this: a story is only real insofar as it's a record of the writer's thoughts, the writer belonging to a given time, place, and social context. The social lens that asks us to see class, economy, and ideology are relevant insofar as they tell us about the author. The analysis shifts from the content of the material to the intentions or reasons for its existence. This is never made clear, and if it was it would make all too clear how boring and unidimensional this kind of analysis is. Dialectics is cool bcuz it works to produce knowledge in reality. In fiction, this kind of study would get snagged up on all kinds of manufactured falsehoods, inconsistencies, and metaphor. If the only purpose is discovering the viewpoint of the author, its like using calculus to tell what 2+2 is.(and anyways the specifically dialectical parts are obfuscated)

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What's the best way to get contemporary economics statistics without having to pay for websites like Statista or OEC.world? Are there annually released books I should be looking for on Libgen?
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So Paul Cockshott, in one of his older Youtube videos, mentions that each country maintains input-output tables which can be used to make/simulate macroeconomic trends in the style of a Marxist reproduction schema. When I go to the US bureau of labor statistics though, their tables are arcane as fuck. In some spreadsheets (1963-1997), they label each economic sector with an integer, and it's not clear which integer belongs to which sector. I cannot for the life of me figure out how to read these. Others are labeled more clearly. Others have broken links. It's totally bizarre. Also the '63-'97 data is temporarily unavailable in XLSX format anyway.



governments publish these, sometimes in the form of a public API that you can query. the data is usually very convoluted though, so you have to do some cleanup work

the input-output table meme needs to stop, it's a terrible abstraction. cockshott is astrology for leftist comp-sci midwits


>the input-output table meme needs to stop, it's a terrible abstraction. cockshott is astrology for leftist comp-sci midwits
ok… what should people be looking into instead? Do you want people to get frustrated and give up? Every time I try to look into anything or learn anything some negative asshole says no it's not worth it, it's just a meme for midwits, yada yada yada. What the fuck is actually useful then?! You tell us!


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>the input-output table meme needs to stop, it's a terrible abstraction.
It's not an "abstraction." If anything it's a more concrete version of Marx's reproduction schema, which is meant to represent macroeconomic trends. Both the input-output table and Marx's reproduction schemas are descended from the Physiocrat François Quesnay's Tableau économique. Marx didn't have access to spreadsheets or programming languages like R, or really much rigorous training in statistics, so it's shocking that he did as well as he did with limited resources. Modern Marxian economists attempting to simulate macroeconomic trends and monitor the changing organic composition of capital in a national or international economy would do well to reference input-output tables. In the input-output table is everything you need for a reproduction schema in the style of Marx, because you have statistics for capital and labor per industry, including cross-pollinating capitals across industries. You can consolidate these industries into Marx's "departments" (1 means of production, 2a necessities, 2b luxuries/armaments). You can track the rate of exploitation and the rate of surplus value this way. You can find out how much capital per industry is going to wages versus profit. You can find out how much labor the economy is wasting on the production of non-necessary goods versus necessary goods and means of production.


Books that publish data, or academic articles, either open source or pirated.

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Where the hell do I start with this shit? Unlike with the Russian Revolution I never see any leftists giving any clear recommendations for the French Revolution, so let's make a thread to address that now.

There are a whole bunch of differing interpretations that are neatly summarized in this Cosmonaut article: https://cosmonautmag.com/2019/09/historiography-wars-the-french-revolution/

Contemporary: The names that get dropped here are Edmund Burke's right wing critique of the French Revolution and Thomas Payne's reply. Seems like something I'm obliged to read eventually but is it a good place to start?

Bourgeois revolutionary: These are the historians that Marx and Engels themselves read: Guizot, Thiers, and Michelet (the latter Wilhelm Liebknecht really liked and who seems to be the most leftwing). The translations are usually pretty old so they might be a difficult read. Do you recommend any of these authors?

Second International Socialist: You have histories by Jean Jaures, E. Belfort Bax, a short one by Kautsky, and some others. Once again physical copies are mostly print on demand dreck, but I'm wondering if anyone recommends these.

Official Communist Academic: The big names here are Georges Lefebvre and Albert Soboul. These authors combine more rigorous research with an explicit Marxist mode of analysis - albeit presumably with some probrematic baggage about a "democratic bourgeoisie" that must personally lead the "bourgeois democratic revolution" and so on. Anyone read these?

Revisionist Renegades: The latter school actually had some clout in mainstream history departments so there was a big cold war push to discredit them - casting doubt on how independent the bourgeoisie was from the aristocracy etc. However, it's pretty much solely a negative critique, with the unspoken thesis being that the whole revolution was a senseless act of violence and that the ancien regime would have evolved into a parliamentary capitalist regime by itself.

So not ideal, but this school has the benefit of the most up-to-date research and prose. I actually already own one book in this tradition: Citizens by Simon Schama that I found at GooPost too long. Click here to view the full text.

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 No.9906[Reply][Last 50 Posts]

Thread dedicated to debunking western propaganda and information relating to the NATO encirclement of Russia, Ukrainian government's mistreatment of ethnic Russian minorities and support of fascist militias to do its bidding. Criticism of Russia and its occupation is welcomed aswell.
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On Wikipedia when the war started for 2022 they deleted the "alley of angels" page which was a memorial for hundreds of kids killed on the donbass. The memorial is still there in real life but they erase from history online this way to avoid the killing Ukraine did

You can see the talk page below and some articles

A Russia language Wikipedia page of it still exists


And on the talk page part for English one where says "Nothing will ever be good enough" a person posted tons links of articles about it
>Western State propaganda like BBC: good
>Russian State propaganda like Sputnik: bad


>"Nothing will ever be good enough"
A Canadian-Ukrainian, probably a glowie.

He relentlessly edits everyday about the holodmor, Soviet history, Russia, this war, Ukraine and so on. Been a user for 19 years. I found this reddit post that stated he had role in creating the holodmor page in 2005.

He has made 64000 edits on Wikipedia and it is primarily on Russia/Ukraine/ussr if you scroll thru his edits. He's ranked 1536 for most edits in Wikipedia history. Think of all the topics that exist on there and he ranks that high focusing on this


great contributions to this thread. Thank you, anon.


Всегда пожалуйста!


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Long thread with links and info on the Euromaidan snipers:

>Wow! Unreported 1,000,000-word Maidan massacre trial verdict corroborates my academic studies by stating as its “categorical conclusion” that there were snipers shooting from Maidan-controlled Hotel Ukraina & that it cannot be ruled out that 8 protesters were killed & 20 wounded by “unknown persons,” who were not "law enforcement officers." This implies Maidan snipers since the verdict states that the trial disproved claims about presence of Russian snipers.

>The verdict also confirms my study findings that there is no evidence of order given by Yanukovych or his ministers to massacre Maidan protesters and that 4 police officers were killed & 39 wounded by Maidan-snipers. In addition to acquitting two Berkut policemen for killing and wounding protesters, it states that all accused Berkut members were baselessly blamed for killing 13 & wounding 29 Maidan protesters. As usual there are zero media reports.

>Prosecution, Maidan lawyers, media with some exceptions, self-proclaimed experts & propaganda peddlers denied shooting by snipers located in Maidan-controlled Hotel Ukraina & called it conspiracy theory.



Is mathematics invented, discovered or both?
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Mathematics is an expression of truth. If you look at the various branches of pure mathematics, many don’t even remotely resemble what you probably had in mind (high school algebra or the basic college curriculum of calculus and linear algebra). Mathematics is similar to a programming language. You have some set of primitives, some set of operations you can perform, and from there you begin to derive the consequences of the operations you’ve defined. I guess you could say in that sense that mathematics is “invented” or “contrived”. Whether it is “real” or not depends entire on whether the system you have defined is useful for solving any real problems. Like if I define a logic about Barbie dolls, I define what properties Barbie has, what operations I can perform on her (brush her hair or undress her), etc… with a little effort we can make such a logic self consistent and valid. You obviously realize immediately that we probably can’t gain any useful or meaningful knowledge from that, so is it real math or not? I don’t see why not.


I just realized what point I was trying to make. Mathematics is obviously invented. It is just a framework within which you can systematize your reasoning about a given question or problem. However, the conclusions you derive from within that framework are discoveries. So a given branch of mathematics or logic is just a method for making discoveries.


math is invented. to say that math is "discovered" is idealism


2+2 = 4 is intuitive because it's one of the most obvious physical examples. 2 apples next to 2 apples is obviously two 2s, which makes 4, or whatever the symbol and name for 4 would be in an alien language. While one can argue for "the apples being different size and shape" this is not a consideration most people think about, especially considering that this basic arithmetic, arises in early civilizations across the world. Aliens are not magical beings as far as we know, their socio-economics would also develop along dialectical materialist lines, which would only be different to humanity's development in regards to the specifics of the environment they evolved in, their physiology and so on. So a silicon-based sentient life-form that evolved and evolved in a rocky high-gravity environment would have obvious physiological differences from methods of sight, to movement and social-philosophies. However if such a race was to evolve to the point of our level of civilization or more, it would definitely have a concept of arithmetic, because its a universal concept of our observable universe, even if the details and language may be different to ours.


Both. Sometimes math is discovered through observation of physical phenomena, and attempting to record those mathematical observations leads to new systems of math. For example, the earliest form of math is counting. Counting was discovered because humans observed many objects with similar characteristics, and needed to keep a track of how many there were (such as sheep in a flock or plants in a field). This led to the discovery of counting. On the other hand, sometimes math is invented. This is math which is done for the sake of doing math rather than a practical application.
>A much more likely explanation is that humans simply think alike.
An even better explanation is that the material conditions of society, such as the level of technological development, mode of production, forces of production, ruling ideology, etc. coalesce to produce intelligent people who are "of their time" and hence discover something simultaneously. Newton and Leibniz both discovered Calculus because society had advanced to the point where it was going to be discovered soon by someone because there was a practical need for it, as well as the tools to do it.
The actual


Nuclear Atomic Science Thread
General thread for discussing, studying, engineering and understanding Nuclear/Atomic/Thermonuclear and other related or comparative energy releases or sources. Both nuclear weapons and nuclear powerplants apply. Post photos, illustrations, text, documents, blueprints, articles and studies related to the topic. Limited memes also permissible.
Posadists… make sure to take meds before posting.

Chernobyl thread >>>/hobby/9068
List of US Nuclear Manuals and regulatory instructions: https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML1536/
Nuclear Energy in Space https://archive.ph/ei3Jg

List of Soviet scientists and officers responsible for the USSR's nuclear technology in alphabetical order:

Nuclear Fusion vs Fission: https://archive.is/Qlgoy
What is an Atomic Reactor: https://archive.ph/1W1jO
What is a Nuclear Bomb: https://archive.is/H29Hl
Post too long. Click here to view the full text.
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>Thought this would be relevant
relevant af. I lost my shit reading this at the height of the LK99 hoping. True nuclear patricians will be acolytes of that Italian grifter from a couple of years ago. Some kind of low energy but modular reactor that fooled a lot of scientists and got some media.


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>1) The ones dangerous to humans are not usually exposed in areas that can comes near human contact and/or are in small amounts
The ones dangerous to humans are generally dangerous to pretty much all wildlife. And guess what, before mining operations for uranium started in all of the US started, normal ass wildlife just existed on top of it.
>2) There's different kinds of radioactivity, and natural background radiation is not the same as radioactivity from artificially enriched materials used in human nuclear projects
The radiation coming off of naturally occurring radioactive elements is not background radiation. Background radiation refers to the "measure of the level of ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources" (from wikipedia). If you turn up a Gieger counter in your house it won't make a peep. If you put it down next to some uranium containing ore, plenty of which is literally just lying on the surface of the earth, it would start beeping.

What sort of radiation in particular are you worried about in this case? Beta particles presumably, because the worry with the Fukushima water is tritium, yes? Well, from the wikipedia article on tritium: "Beta particles from tritium can penetrate only about 6.0 millimetres (0.24 in) of air, and they are incapable of passing through the dead outermost layer of human skin". But you yourself pointed that out. As for the bio accumulation, read on.

>False, this is the same bullshit excuse the US military uses to claim Depleted Uranium is "safe" yet that is patently untrue.

What are you referring to specifically?

>Not against their allies, not without political or real motivation. Japan isn't stepping on any toes politically for the USA or West, so it makes no sense for them to push this without a real risk or reason.

China and Russia are not allies of Japan. As for South Korea, well that's why I point out the possibility of ignorance. Nuclear scaremongering is effective.

As for the article you posted, brother, read your own stuff please.
Post too long. Click here to view the full text.


I'll have to reply at a later time ATM. busy Rn


Extracting uranium from seawater looks cool, not only as a more sustainable way of getting U but also for remediation


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If the Fukushima Water Dump is so harmless, then why was there such concern across the world when a little more than 5 tons of (radioactive) water leaked out? News outlets from all over the world were alarmed, and Japan has a long history of brushing environmental health concerns under the rug and denying impacts, there's a reason The Four Big Pollution Diseases of Japan is an actual title.

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